School Climate and Student Discipline Resources: Know the Data

The Department of Education's Civil Rights Data Collection (CRDC) and Section 618 of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) data have consistently demonstrated that student discipline disproportionately involves students of color, particularly Black students, and students with disabilities. These disparities in student discipline begin as early as preschool and are widespread and persistent.

Disparities in student discipline do not, standing alone, violate Federal laws, such as Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964, which prohibits discrimination based on race, color, or national origin; or Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, which prohibits discrimination based on disability. Depending on the circumstances, however, evidence of disparities can prompt the Department to evaluate whether discrimination is occurring, including by examining why disparities exist and how policies and procedures are written and applied in practice. Such disparities should also prompt schools and school districts to evaluate their discipline practices.

Explore the following links for more in-depth data about discipline disparities among different student sub-groups.

  • Civil Rights Data Collection (CRDC):
    The CRDC is the Department's primary data source for monitoring educational programs and services for compliance with Federal civil rights laws that prohibit discrimination based on race, color, national origin, disability, and sex.
  • IDEA Section 618 Data:
    Section 618 of the IDEA requires states to submit data about the infants and toddlers, birth through age 2, who receive early intervention services under Part C of the IDEA and children with disabilities, ages 3 through 21, who receive special education and related services under Part B of the IDEA. These data include disciplinary removals of students with disabilities.

Last Modified: 07/28/2022