Table of contents • Title page • Introduction • Acknowledgments • National Summary • State Profiles • Sources • Appendix A • Appendix B Appendix C • Full report in PDF format (1,601K)

# State Education Indicators with a Focus on Title I

## Appendix C

### National Assessment for Educational Progress--Definitions and Further Information

##### Basic

Fourth-grade students performing at the basic level should show some evidence of understanding the mathematical concepts and procedures in the five NAEP content strands. Fourth graders performing at the basic level should be able to estimate and use basic facts to perform simple computations with whole numbers; show some understanding of fractions and decimals; and solve some simple real-world problems in all NAEP content areas. Students at this level should be able to use--though not always accurately-- four-function calculators, rulers, and geometric shapes. Their written responses are often minimal and presented without supporting information.

##### Proficient

Fourth-grade students performing at the proficient level should consistently apply integrated procedural knowledge and conceptual understanding to problem solving in the five NAEP content strands. Fourth graders performing at the proficient level should be able to use whole numbers to estimate, compute, and determine whether results are reasonable. They should have a conceptual understanding of fractions and decimals; be able to solve real-world problems in all NAEP content areas; and use four function calculators, rulers, and geometric shapes appropriately. Students performing at the proficient level should employ problem-solving strategies such as identifying and using appropriate information. Their written solutions should be organized and presented both with supporting information and explanations of how they were achieved.

##### Note

The following states did not satisfy one of the guidelines for school sample participation rates: Alaska, Arkansas, Iowa, Michigan, Montana, Nevada, New Jersey, New York, Pennsylvania, South Carolina, and Vermont.

##### Basic

Eighth-grade students performing at the basic level should exhibit evidence of conceptual and procedural understanding in the five NAEP content strands. This level of performance signifies an understanding of arithmetic operations--including estimation--on whole numbers, decimals, fractions, and percents. Eighth graders performing at the basic level should complete problems correctly with the help of structural prompts such as diagrams, charts, and graphs. They should be able to solve problems in all NAEP content strands through the appropriate selection and use of strategies and technological tools--including calculators, computers, and geometric shapes. Students at this level also should be able to use fundamental algebraic and informal geometric concepts in problem solving. As they approach the proficient level, students at the basic level should be able to determine which of the available data are necessary and sufficient for correct solutions and use them in problem solving. However, these eighth graders show limited skill in communicating mathematically.

##### Proficient

Eighth-grade students performing at the proficient level should apply mathematical concepts and procedures consistently to complex problems in the five NAEP content strands. Eighth graders performing at the proficient level should be able to conjecture, defend their ideas, and give supporting examples. They should understand the connections between fractions, percents, decimals, and other mathematical topics such as algebra and functions. Students at this level are expected to have a thorough understanding of basic level arithmetic operations--an understanding sufficient for problem solving in practical situations. Quantity and spatial relations in problem solving and reasoning should be familiar to them, and they should be able to convey underlying reasoning skills beyond the level of arithmetic. They should be able to compare and contrast mathematical ideas and generate their own examples. These students should make inferences from data and graphs; apply properties of informal geometry; and accurately use the tools of technology. Students at this level should understand the process of gathering and organizing data and be able to calculate, evaluate, and communicate results within the domain of statistics and probability.

##### Note

The following states did not satisfy one of the guidelines for school sample participation rates: Alaska, Arkansas, Colorado, Iowa, Maryland, Michigan, Montana, New York, South Carolina, Vermont, and Wisconsin.

##### Basic

Fourth-grade students performing at the basic level should demonstrate an understanding of the overall meaning of what they read. When reading text appropriate for fourth graders, they should be able to make relatively obvious connections between the text and their own experiences, and extend the ideas in the text by making simple inferences.

##### Proficient

Fourth-grade students performing at the proficient level should be able to demonstrate an overall understanding of the text, providing inferential as well as literal information. When reading text appropriate to fourth grade, they should be able to extend the ideas in the text by making inferences, drawing conclusions, and making connections to their own experiences. The connection between the text and what the student infers should be clear.

##### Note

The following states did not satisfy one of the guidelines for school sample participation rates: California, Iowa, Kansas, Massachusetts, Minnesota, Montana, New Hampshire, New York, and Wisconsin.

##### Basic

Eighth-grade students performing at the Basic level should demonstrate a literal understanding of what they read and be able to make some interpretations. When reading text appropriate to eighth grade, they should be able to identify specific aspects of the text that reflect overall meaning, extend the ideas in the text by making simple inferences, recognize and relate interpretations and connections among ideas in the text to personal experience, and draw conclusions based on the text.

##### Proficient

Eighth-grade students performing at the Proficient level should be able to show an overall understanding of the text, including inferential as well as literal information. When reading text appropriate to eighth grade, they should be able to extend the ideas in the text by making clear inferences from it, by drawing conclusions, and by making connections to their own experiences--including other reading experiences. Proficient eighth-graders should be able to identify some of the devices authors use in composing text.

##### Note

The following states did not satisfy one of the guidelines for school sample participation rates: California, Kansas, Maryland, Minnesota, Montana, New York, and Wisconsin.

[Appendix B]