A r c h i v e d  I n f o r m a t i o n

A Nation at Risk - April 1983

Appendix D: Hearing Testimony

Science, Mathematics, and Technology Education


Without a deep, sturdy science and technology foundation, U.S. needs cannot be satisfied. The base of the foundation is education in science and mathematics from grade school through high school. But the evidence is all about us of our recent neglect and the strong possibility of a further downgrading of the national importance of such education.
                                    Simon Ramo                                     the TRW-Fujitsu Company                                     Redondo Beach, California 

H. Guyford Stever, National Academy of Sciences, Washington, D.C.
Bernard M. Oliver, Hewlett-Packard Company, Palo Alto, California
Henry L. Alder, University of California, Davis, representing the Council of Scientific Society Presidents
Sarah E. Klein, Roton Middle School, Norwalk, Connecticut, representing the National Science Teachers Association
Harold D. Taylor, Hillsdale High School, San Mateo, California, representing the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics


John Martin, Palo Alto Unified School District, California
Ruth Willis, Hamilton Junior High School, Oakland, California
Sarn Dederian, San Francisco Unified School District, California
Leroy Finkel, San Mateo County Office of Education, California
Olivia Martinez, San Jose Unified School District, California
Robert Bell, General Electric Company, San Jose, California
Judith Hubner, representing the Governor's Office, State of California
Robert W Walker, De Anza-Foothill Community College District, Californla
Nancy Kreinberg, Lawrence Hall of Science, Berkeley, California
Robert Finnell, Lawrence Hall of Science, Berkeley, California
Marian E. Koshland, University of California, Berkeley, representing the National Science Board
Alan M. Portis, University of California, Berkeley, representing the Education Committee of the American Physical Society
Leon Henkin, University of California, Berkeley, representing the U.S. Commission on Mathematical Instruction
John Pawson, Edison High School, Huntington Beach, California
Alan Fibish, Lowell High School, San Francisco, California
Juliet R. Henry, representing the California Teachers Association
Jess Bravin, Board of Education, Los Angeles, California


Frank Oppenheimer, Exploratorium, San Francisco, California
Leigh Burstein, University of California, Los Angeles
Judy Chamberlain, Cupertino Unified School District, California
Michael Summerville, Fremont Unified High School District, California
Ted Perry, San Juan Unified School District, California
Paul DeHart Hurd, Stanford University, California
Elizabeth Karplus, Campolindo High School, Moraga, California
Louis Fein, Palo Alto Learners Association, California
Bob McFarland, representing the California Math Council
Katherine Burt, Cupertino Elementary School District, California
Leo Ruth, California Engineering Foundation


Gordon M. Ambach, State Education Department, Albany, New York
James L. Casey, State Department of Education, Oklahoma City, Oklahoma
Carolyn Graham, Jefferson Elementary School, Burbank, California
Marcy Holteen, Ambler, Pennsylvania
Howard C. Mel and Kay Fairwell, Lawrence Hall of Science, Berkeley, California
Jean Phillips, Thousand Oaks, California
Simon Ramo, the TRW-Fujitsu Company, Redondo Beach, California
Gerhardt W. Reidel, University of West Los Angeles, Culver City, California
Carl L. Riehm, Virginia State Department of Education, Richmond, Virginia
John H. Saxon, Norman, Oklahoma
Thomas O. Sidebottom, Interactive Sciences, Inc., Palo Alto, California
Karl Weiss, Northeastern University, Boston, Massachusetts
Jan West, Oroville, California

Related Activities in the Bay Area

Site Visit
Lawrence Hall of Science
University of California, Berkeley
Howard C. Mel, Director

Tour of the Paul and Jean Hanna Collection on the Role of Education and the Archives and Library at the Hoover Institution, Stanford University

Dinner with business, education, and community leaders
Sponsored by the Chamber of Commerce of the United States, Western Regional Office, and the William and Flora Hewlett Foundation

Language and Literacy: Skills for Academic Learning


Writing as an activity is not honored by the American public in the opinion of the students. They see a surface picture, dominated by television, film, and radio, in which the acts of writing and reading are not viewed as important or even relevant. The cultural heroes are athletes, actresses, actors, politicians and big business tycoons. None seemingly need reading or writing to achieve their stature.
                                      James Kinneavy                                       University of Texas, Austin 

Richard C. Anderson, University of Iltinois, Champaign-Urbana
Margaret Smith-Burke, New York University, New York
Donaid Graves, University of New Hampshire, Durham
Eileen Lundy, University of Texas, San Antonio
Ray Clifford, Defense Language Institute, Presidio of Monterey, California
Lity Wong-Fillmore, University of California, Berkeley


Victoria Bergin, Texas Education Agency, Austin
Alan C. Purves, University of Illinois, Champaign-Urbana
Delia Pompa, Houston Independent School District, Texas
Olivia Munoz, Houston Independent School District, Texas
James Kinneavy, University of Texas, Austin
Betty Von Maszewski, Deer Park Independent School District, Texas
Claire E. Weinstein, University of Texas, Austin
Patricia Sturdivant, Houston Independent School District, Texas


June Dempsey, University of Houston, Texas, representing the American Association of Community and Junior Colleges, the Western College Reading Association, and the National Association for Remedial and Developmental Studies in Postsecondary Education
Jane Porter, College Board, Austin, Texas
Kay Bell, Texas Classroom Teachers Association, Austin, Texas
Judy Walker de Felix, University of Houston, Texas
Barbara Glave, University of Houston, Texas, representing the Houston Area Teachers of Foreign Language
Dora Scott, Houston Independent School District, Texas, representing the National Education Association and the Texas State Teachers Association, Houston
Georgette Sullins, Spring Independent School District, Texas
Renate Donovan, Spring Branch Independent School District, Texas


Gordon M. Ambach, State Education Department, Albany, New York
Jo Bennett and Jean Parochetti, Alvin Community College, Texas
Sharon Robinson, National Education Association, Washington, D.C.
Donald L. Rubin, University of Georgia, Athens, representing the Speech Communication Association
Robert N. Schwartz, University of Houston, Texas
Ralph C. Staiger, International Reading Association, Newark, Delaware
Helen Warriner-Burke and Carl L. Riehm, Department of Education, Richmond, Virginia
William Work, Speech Communication Association, Annandale, Virginia
Daryl R. Yost, East Allen County Schools, New Haven, Indiana

Related Activities in Houston

Site visits coordinated by the Office of the General Superintendent of the Houston Independent School District
Briargrove Elementary School
Wilson Elementary School
Clifton Middle School
Bellaire High School
High School for Engineering Professions
High School for Health Professions
High School for Performing and Visual Arts

Teaching and Teacher Education


Realizing aptitudes and performance expectations early in the training program will force the teacher education student to determine if he or she will survive in a profession where effective members are those who believe all students can learn and take the responsibility upon themselves to see that they do.
                                       Robert Fortenberry                                        Jackson City Schools                                        Mississippi 

Gary Sykes, National Institute of Education, Washington, D.C.
Gary Fenstermacher, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University, Blacksburg
David G. Imig, American Association of Colleges for Teacher Education, Washington, D.C.
Anne Flowers, Georgia Southern University, Statesboro
Barbara Peterson, Seven Oaks Elementary School, Columbia, South Carolina
Eva Galumbos, Southern Regional Education Board, Atlanta, Georgia
Robert Scanlon, Pennsylvania State Department of Education, Harrisburg
Ralph Turlington, Florida State Department of Education, Tallahassee
Gail MacColl, National Institute of Education, Washington, D.C.
Kathy Jones, Roan State Community College, Harriman, Tennessee, representing the National Education Association
Mary Lou Romaine, Atlanta Federation of Teachers, Georgia, representing the American Federation of Teachers
Janet Towslee-Collier, Georgia State University, Atlanta, representing the Association of Teacher Educators
Robert Fortenberry, Jackson City Schools, Mississippi, representing the American Association of School Administrators
Nicholas Hobar, West Virginia Department of Education, Charleston, representing the National Association of State Directors of Teacher Education and Certification
Fred Loveday, Georgia Private Education Council, Smyrna, representing the Council for American Private Education
James Lowden, Alabama Christian Education Association, Prattville, representing the American Association of Christian Schools
J.L. Grant, Florida State University, Tallahassee, representing the American Association for Colleges of Teacher Education
Carolyn Huseman, Georgia State Board of Education, representing the National Association of State Boards of Education


Robert Fontenot, University of Southwestern Louisiana, LaFayette
Nancy Ramseur, Camden High School, South Carolina
Eugene Kelly, George Washington University, Washington, D.C.
Richard Hodges, Decatur, Georgia
James Gray, University of California, Berkeley
Robert Dixon, Institute for Research, Development and Engineering in Nuclear Energy, Atlanta, Georgia
Pat Woodall, Columbus, Georgia
Wayne Wheatley, Furman University, Greenville, South Carolina, representing the Council for Exceptional Children
Joe Hasenstab, Project Teach, Westwood, New Jersey
William Drummond, University of Florida, Gainesville
Debbie Yoho, Southeastern Regional Teacher Center, Columbia, South Carolina
Donald Gallehr, Virginia Writing Project, Fairfax
James Collins, National Council of States on In-service Education, Syracuse, New York
Ann Levy, Project New Adventure in Learning, Tallahassee, Florida
Bill Katzenmeyer, University of South Florida, Tampa
Walt Mika, Virginia Education Association
Eunice Sims, Georgia Writing Project, Atlanta


Gordon M. Ambach, State Education Department, Albany, New York
Elaine Banks and Sam Sava, National Association of Elementary School Principals, Reston, Virginia
Aladino A. Burchianti, Masontown, Pennsylvania
Roy Edelfelt, Washington, D.C.
Ed Foglia, California Teachers Association, Burlingame
June Johnson, New Adventure in Learning, Tallahassee, Florida
Richard A. Krueger, Staples Teacher Center, Minnesota
Clare Miezio, Eagle Forum Education Committee, Schaumburg, Illinois
Donald L. Rubin, University of Georgia, Athens, representing the Speech Communication Association Committee on Assessment and Testing
Daryl R. Yost, East Allen County Schools, New Haven, Indiana

Related Activities in Atlanta

Site Visits
Douglas High School
L.W. Butts, Principal
Mays High School
Thomas E. Wood, Jr., Principal

Lunch with local dignitaries hosted by Georgia State University

Dinner with business, education, and community leaders
Coordinated by the Atlanta Partnership of Business and Education
Sponsored by FABRAP Architects, Inc., and the Coca-Cola Company

College Admissions and the Transition to Postsecondary Education


We're in the student learning business, and if we're going to have effectiveness in terms of student learning we've got to have good teachers, and we've got to have sound management.
                                Ralph Turlington                                 Florida State Department of Education                                 Tallahassee 

Clifford Sjogren, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor
Ralph McGee, New Trier Township High School, Winnetka, Illinois
Alice Cox, University of California Systemwide Administration, Berkeley
George Stafford, Prairie View A&M University, Texas
Fred Hargadon, Stanford University, California
Margaret MacVicar, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge


Lois Mazzuca, National Association of College Admissions Counselors, Rolling Meadows, Illinois
Ora McConnor, Chicago Public Schools, Illinois
Theodore Brown, Hales Franciscan High School, Chicago, Illinois
Charles D. O'Connell, University of Chicago, Illinois
Oscar Shabat, Chicago Community College System, Illinois
Arnold Mitchum, Marquette University, Milwaukee, Wisconsin
Michael Kean, Educational Testing Service, Midwestern Regional Office, Evanston, Illinois
John B. Vaccaro, The College Board, Midwestern Regional Office, Evanston, Illinois

William Kinnison, Wittenberg University, Springfield, Ohio


William J. Pappas, Northview High School, Grand Rapids, Michigan
Carmelo Rodriguez, ASPIRA of Illinois, Chicago
Jeffrey Mallow, Loyola University, Chicago, Illinois
Carol Elder, Local 4100 of American Federation of Teachers, Chicago, Illinois
Bettye J. Lewis, Michigan Alliance of Families
Rachel Ralya, Michigan Alliance of Families
Austin Doherty, Alverno College, Milwaukee, Wisconsin
Gordon M. Ambach, State Education Department, Albany, New York
Gordon C. Godbey, Pennsylvania Association for Adult Continuing Education
Daryl R. Yost, East Allen County Schools, New Haven, Indiana

Related Activities in Chicago

Site Visits
Standard Oil of Indiana
Gene E. Cartwright, Manager of Employee Relations
Joseph Feeney, Director, Training and Personnel Planning

Continental Illinois Bank
Jennifer Olsztynski, Personnel Manager

De Paul University
Rev. John T. Richardson, President
David Justice, Dean, School for New Learning

Luncheon with leaders of higher education institutions
Sponsored by the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation

Dinner with business, education, and community leaders
Sponsored by the John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation
Chaired by Stanley O. Ikenberry, President, University of Illinois

Education for a Productive Role in a Productive Society


Fortunately for my students, I have found a school district where teachers are considered valuable professionals and where professional development is taken seriously.
                                  Debbie Yoho                                   Southeastern Regional Teacher Center                                   Columbia, South Carolina 

Daniel Saks, Brookings Institution, Washington, D.C.
Roy Forbes, Education Commission of the States, Denver, Colorado
Sol Hurwitz, Committee for Economic Development, New York, New York
Martha Brownlee, Naval Education and Training for Research and Development, Pensacola, Florida
Norman Pledger, Colorado AFL-CIO, Denver


Lucretia James, Storage Technology, Inc., Louisville, Colorado
Kathy Collins Smith, American Institute of Banking, Denver, Colorado
Wade Murphree, Denver Institute of Technology, Colorado
Calvin Frazier, State Department of Education, Denver, Colorado
Robert Taylor, The Ohio State University, Columbus
John Peper, Jefferson County Schools, Lakewood, Colorado
Michael A. MacDowell, Joint Council on Economic Education, New York, New York
Larry Brown, 70001, Inc., Washington, D.C.
Robert Stewart, University of Missouri, Columbia
Gordon Dickinson, Colorado Community College and Vocational Education Board, Sterling
Karl Weiss, Northeastern University, Boston, Massachusetts
Donald Schwartz, University of Colorado, Colorado Springs


Patricia Brevik, Auraria Library and Media Center, Denver, Colorado
John Dromgoole, National Commission on Cooperative Education, Boston, Massachusetts
Faith Hamre, Littleton Public Schools, Ohio
Vernon Broussard, National Council on Vocational Education, Culver City, California
David Terry, Utah System of Higher Education, Salt Lake City
Georgia Van Adestine, Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, Michigan
Gordon E. Heaton, Colorado Education Association, Aurora, Colorado
Young Jay Mulkey, American Institute for Character Education, San Antonio, Texas
George P. Rusteika, Far West Laboratory for Educational Research and Development, San Francisco, California


Gordon M. Ambach, State Education Department, Albany, New York
Donald Clark, National Association for Industry-Education Cooperation, Buffalo, New York
Jacqueline Danzberger, Youth-Work, Inc., Washington, D.C.
Charles Davis, Education Clinics, Inc., Seattle, Washington
Dennis A. Dirksen, San Diego State University, California
Ben Lawrence, National Center for Higher Education Management Systems, Boulder, Colorado
Bill Rosser and Jennie Sanchez, Chicano Education Project, Denver, Colorado
Sandra K. Squires, University of Nebraska, Omaha

Related Activities in the Denver Area

Site Visits
Warren Occupational Technology Center, Golden
Byron Tucker, Principal
Mountain Bell Education and Training Center, Lakewood
Fred Wells, Director
Career Education Center, Denver
John Astuno, Principal
Emily Griffith Opportunity School, Denver
Butch Thomas, Principal

Luncheon discussion with Robert Worthington, Assistant Secretary for Vocational and Adult Education, U. S. Department of Education, Washington, D.C.

Dinner discussion with Willard Wirtz, National Institute for Work and Learning, Washington, D.C., and Henry David, National Institute of Education, Washington, D.C.

Dinner with business, education, and community leaders
Sponsored by the Education Commission of the States
Chaired by Calvin Frazier, Commissioner of Education, Colorado

Education for the Gifted and Talented


Our greatest resource--and the greatest resource of any nation--is the education of its people.
                                         Norman Pledger                                          Colorado AFL-CIO                                          Denver 

James J. Gallagher, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill
Marcel Kinsbourne, Eunice Kennedy Shriver Center, Waltham, Massachusetts
Joseph Renzulli, University of Connecticut, Storrs
David Feldman, Tufts University, Medford, Massachusetts


William Durden, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland
Connie Steele, Texas Technical University, Lubbock
Isa Kaftal Zimmerman, Lexington Public Schools, Massachusetts
Alexinia Baldwin, State University of New York, Albany


Arthur Pontarelli, Rhode Island State Department of Education, Providence
Armand E. Bastastini, Jr., Rhode Island State Legislature, Providence
William R. Holland, Narragansett School District, Rhode Island
Melissa Lawton, Bristol School District, Rhode Island
Rachel Christina, Bristol School District, Rhode Island
Catherine Valentino, North Kingstown School District, Rhode Island
Marie Friedel, National Foundation for Gifted and Creative Children, Providence, Rhode Island
Marsha R. Berger, Rhode Island Federation of Teachers, Providence
Sidney Rollins, Rhode Island College, Providence
David Laux, State Advocates for Gifted Education, Providence, Rhode Island
James A. Di Prete, Coventry High School, Rhode Island
Harold Raynolds, Maine State Department of Education, Augusta
June K. Goodman, Connecticut State Board of Education, Hartford
Mary Hunter Wolfe, Connecticut State Task Force on Gifted and Talented Education, Hartford
Paul Regnier, speaking on behalf of Gordon Ambach, State Education Department, Albany, New York
Benson Snyder, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts
June Cox, Sid Richardson Foundation, Fort Worth, Texas
Loretta L. Frissora, Needham Public Schools, Massachusetts, representing the National Education Association
Patricia O'Connell, Augusta, Maine, representing the Council of State Directors for Programs for the Gifted


Virginia Ehrlich, Astor Program Studies for Gifted, Suffern, New York
Gloria Duclos, University of Southern Maine, Portland
Anton Lysy, Londonderry School District, New Hampshire
Rhoda Spear, New Haven Schools, Connecticut
Judith Grunbaum, Southeastern Massachusetts University, North Dartmouth
Vincent Hawes, American Association of State Colleges and Universities, Washington, D.C.
Dorothy Moser, Mortar Board, Inc., Columbus, Ohio
Wendy Mareks, Chelmsford Association for Talented and Gifted, Massachusetts
James DeLisle, University of Connecticut, Storrs
Naomi Zymelman, Charles E. Smith Jewish Day School, Rockville, Maryland
Sherry Earle, Connecticut Association for the Gifted, Danbury
C. Grey Austin, University of Georgia, Athens
Sally Reis, Council for Exceptional Children, Talented and Gifted Division, Reston, Virginia
Betty T. Gilson, Brockton Public Schools, Massachusetts
Roberta McHardy, Louisiana Department of Education, Baton Rouge
Felicity Freund, Gifted Child Society, Oakland, New Jersey
Lydia Smith, Simmons College, Boston, Massachusetts
Betsy Buchbinder, Massachusetts Association for Advancement of Individual Potential, Milton
Artemis Kirk, Simmons College, Boston, Massachusetts, representing the Association of College and Research Libraries


Elizabeth F. Abbott, Governor's Program for Gifted and Talented, Gainesville, Florida
James Alvino, Gifted Child Newsletter, Sewell, New Jersey
Gordon M. Ambach, State Education Department, Albany, New York
Association of San Diego Educators for the Gifted and Talented, California
Philip J. Burke and Karen A. Verbeke, University of Maryland, College Park
Sheila Brown, Nebraska Department of Education, Lincoln
California Association for the Gifted, Downey
Carolyn M. Callahan, The Association for the Gifted
Anne B. Crabbe, Coe College, Cedar Rapids, Iowa
Roxanne H. Cramer, American Mensa, Arlington, Virginia
Neil Daniel, Texas Christian University, Fort Worth
Sue Ellen Duggan and Mary Lou Fernandes, Lackawanna City School District, New York
John F. Feldhusen, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana Frank F. Fowle, III, Clayton, Missouri
Joseph Harrington, College Academy, Stoughton, Massachusetts
Anne E. Impellizzeri, American Association for Gifted Children
Betty Johnson, Minnesota Council for the Gifted and Talented, Minneapolis
Nancy Kalajian, Sommerville, Massachusetts
John Lawson, Massachusetts Department of Education, Quincy
Barbara Lindsey, Southwest Iowans for Talented and Gifted, Council Bluffs
Diane Modest, Framingham Public Schools, Massachusetts
Jack L. Omond, Office for the Gifted, Port Elizabeth, South Africa
Arthur Purcell, Resource Policy Institute, Washington, D.C.
Annette Raphel, Milton Academy, Massachusetts
Susanne Richert, Educational Improvement Center, Sewell, New Jersey
Carl L. Riehm, Virginia State Department of Education, Richmond
Terry Ruby, Raynham Public Schools, Massachusetts
Barbara Moore Schuch, San Diego City Schools, California
Dorothy Sisk, University of South Florida, Tampa
Mercedes Smith, Gifted Association of Missouri, Springfield
Christopher L. Sny, Janesville Public Schools, Wisconsin
Julian C. Stanley, SMPY, Department of Psychology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland
Jo Thomason and Frederick J. Weintraub, Council for Exceptional Children, Reston, Virginia
Jo Anne Welch, Mississippi Association for the Talented and Gifted

Related Activities in the Boston Area

Site Visits
Buckingham, Brown and Nichols School, Carnbridge
Peter Gunness, Headmaster
Brookline High School, Brookline
Robert McCarthy, Headmaster

Secretary's Regional Representatives


...within any human group, any ethnic or socio-economic sample, there will be people of high intellectual potential but none of them will realize their potential unless they are also afforded the opportunity to do so.
                                     Marcel Kinsbourne                                      Eunice Kennedy Shriver Center                                      Waltham, Massachusetts 

The Secretary's Regional Representatives held their own conferences or hearings for educators in their regions in order to provide additional testimony to the Commission. In addition to these events, they also supported the hearings the Commission sponsored in their regions.

Region I, Wayne Roberts
Boston, Massachusetts
Forum on Effective Schools, September 16, 1982

Region II, Lorraine Colville
New York, New York
Forum on Excellence, October 21, 1982

Region III, Joseph Ambrosino
Philadelphia, Pennsylvania
Hearing/Conference on Cooperative Education, October 11, 1982

Region IV, Ted B. Freeman
Atlanta, Georgia
Public Meeting on Excellence in Education, October 22, 1982

Region V, Harold Wright
Chicago, Illinois
Excellence in Education: Preparation for the Transition to Higher Education, October 6, 1982

Region VI, Scott Tuxhorn
Dallas, Texas
Public Hearing on Excellence in Education, October 4, 1982

Region VII, Cynthia A. Harris
Kansas City, Missouri
Rural and Small Schools Excellence, October 26, 1982

Region VIII, Tom Tancredo
Denver, Colorado
Conference on Excellence in Education, November 12-13, 1982

Region IX, Eugene Gonzales
San Francisco, California
The Teacher: Key to Excellence in the Classroom, October 18, 1982

Region X, George Hood
Seattle, Washington
Public Hearing, June 25, 1982, August 27, 1982
(Hearing Officer: Hyrum M. Smith)

Transcripts of the preceding hearings sponsored by and for the Commission will be available in the ERIC System (See Ordering Information).

In addition to these hearings sponsored by and for the Commission, Commission members participated in a series of site visits and a public hearing focusing on Excellence in Rural Education. These events took place on April 23-24, 1982, in Kentucky. The hearing was held at the University of Kentucky-Somerset Community College.
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[Appendix C: Commissioned Papers] [Table of Contents] [Appendix E: Other Presentations to the Commission]