Tutorial uses are those in which the technology does the teaching, typically in a lecture-like or workbook-like format in which the system controls what material will be presented to the student. In our classification scheme, tutorial uses include (1) expository learning, in which the system provides information; (2) demonstration, in which the system displays a phenomenon; and (3) practice, in which the system requires the student to solve problems, answer questions, or engage in some other procedure.
Exploratory uses of technology are those in which the student is free to roam around the information displayed or presented in the medium. Exploratory applications may promote discovery or guided discovery approaches to helping students learn information, knowledge, facts, concepts, or procedures. We also include reference applications, such as CD-ROM encyclopedias, in this category. In contrast to tutorial uses in which the technology acts on the student, in exploratory uses the student controls the learning (as in exploring microworlds or hypermedia stacks).
Application uses, such as word processors and spreadsheets, help students in the educational process by providing them with tools to facilitate writing tasks, analysis of data, and other uses. In addition to word processors and spreadsheets, applications include database management programs, graphing software, desktop publishing systems, and videotape recording and editing equipment.
Communication uses are those that allow students and teachers to send and receive messages and information to one another through networks or other technologies. Interactive distance learning via satellite, computer and modem, cable links, or other technologies constitutes another example of communication uses.
Table II-1. - Classification of Education Technologies CATEGORY DEFINITION EXAMPLES Tutorial Systems designed to teach by Computer-assisted providing information, demonstrations, instruction (CAI) or simulations in a sequence deter- Intelligent CAI mined by the system. Tutorial systems Instructional may provide for expository learning television (the system displays a phenomenon or Some videodisc/ procedure) and practice (the system multimedia systems requires the student to answer or questions or solve problems). Exploratory Systems designed to facilitate student Microcomputer-based learning by providing information, laboratories demonstrations, or simulations when Microworlds/ requested to do so by the student. simulations Under student control, the system Some videodisc/ provides the context for discovery multimedia systems (or guided discovery) of facts, concepts, or procedures. Application General-purpose tools for accomplishing Word processing tasks such as composition, data storage, software or data analysis. Spreadsheet software Database software Desktop publishing systems Video recording and editing equipment Communication Systems that allow groups of teachers Local area networks and students to send information and Wide area networks data to each other through networks Interactive or other technologies. distance learningTable II-1 summarizes our technology classification scheme. Each of these four uses of technology in education is discussed below. A brief history of the technology use is presented, along with specific examples. A variety of media (e.g., computers, videodisc, audio) may be involved in any of these educational uses, sometimes stand-alone, other times in hybrid technology systems. Under each use, we stress examples of technology applications that are well suited for teaching advanced thinking skills, especially with educationally disadvantaged students. Finally, this survey of technologies for education concludes with a review of the availability of these technologies in schools.
This page was last updated December 18, 2001 (jca)