Purpose: To help financially needy undergraduate and graduate students to meet the costs of their education at participating postsecondary institutions by helping institutions to provide on-and off-campus part-time employment for students. The funds appropriated pay a portion of the students' salaries in Federal Work-Study jobs.
|Fiscal Year||Appropriation||Fiscal Year||Appropriation|
The FWS program, with the Federal Supplemental Educational Opportunity Grant Program and the Federal Perkins Loan Program, are collectively referred to as "Campus-Based Programs" because the institution determines which eligible students receive awards and how much they receive.
Participation: According to program data, 714,440 students received FWS awards averaging $1,092 in the 1992-93 award year (the most recent year for which data are available). This is an increase from the previous year when 697,304 students received awards averaging $1,090.
Distribution by Sector: Institutional participation in the program has decreased slightly: in 1992-93, a total of 3,620 institutions received program funds while 3,819 participated in 1991-92.
Table 1 shows the distribution of FWS funds by type of institution between 1992-93 and 1983-84, when these data were first collected. The percentage of funds going to public, private nonprofit, and proprietary institutions has changed only slightly throughout this period, with public institutions receiving slightly more than half of all funds disbursed in 1992-93 (approximately 53 percent), private nonprofit institutions receiving the next largest share (approximately 44 percent), and proprietary institutions receiving a very small portion of funds (approximately 2 percent).
|Award Year||Public||Private Nonprofit||Proprietary|
Source: III. 1.
Distribution by Dependency Status and Educational Level: During the mid-1980s, increasing shares of program funds were awarded to dependent undergraduates, while the portion of funds going to graduate students was decreasing. These trends appear to have stabilized in the past few years (Table 2). In 1992-93, undergraduates received approximately 90 percent of all FWS funds, and nearly 63 percent of funds awarded to undergraduates were awarded to dependent students.
Distribution by Income: The percentages of recipients, total aid, and average awards vary by type of student and level of family income (see Tables 3 and 4.) In 1991-92, the average award for dependent undergraduates was $1,001 while the average award for independent undergraduates was 14.1% larger ($1,144). Graduate students received the largest awards, however, with an average amount ($2,000) almost double that of undergraduate students. Due to large award sizes, graduate students receive a disproportionate share of FWS funds. Although they constituted only 4.8 percent of all recipients, graduate students received 9.0 percent of all program funds.
For dependent undergraduate students, the percentage of recipients across income levels closely mirrors the percentage of aid distributed across the same income levels. Among dependent undergraduate students, approximately 53 percent of FWS recipients and dollars are awarded for families with income below $30,000. The highest average award for dependent undergraduates is for those students whose family income is between $24,000 and $30,000. The average award for family income $24,000 - $30,000 is $1,049; for family income $18,000 - $24,000 is $1,044; and for family income $12,000 - $18,000 is $1,029.
|Dependent Undergraduate||Independent Undergraduate||Graduate Students||All Students|
|Percent Distribution of Recipients||68.3||26.0||5.7||100.0|
|Percent Distribution of Aid||62.6||27.3||10.1||100.0|
|Average Award $||1,001||1,144||1,943||1,092|
|Percent Distribution of Recipients||8.2||9.9||11.2||12.2||11.5||47.0||100.0|
|Percent Distribution of Aid||7.5||9.8||11.5||12.7||12.2||46.3||100.0|
|Average Award $||922||995||1,029||1,044||1,049||986||1001|
FWS awards are a combination of Federal and institutional contributions. The Federal contribution has changed over the past few years. In award year 1988-89, the Federal contribution could not exceed 80 percent; in 1989-90, the Federal share could not exceed 75 percent; and for award years 1990-91, 1991-92 and 1992-93 the Federal share of compensation paid to a student could not exceed 70 percent. For award years 1993-94 and following, the maximum Federal Share is 75 percent. The institutional contribution must usually equal 25 percent. The institutional share may be waived under certain conditions.
The disbursement of FWS awards is a two-step process. First, the Department of Education allocates funds to eligible postsecondary institutions according to a formula that incorporates a guaranteed minimum (based on institutional expenditures in the 1985-86 award year) and increases that reflect students' need. Second, institutions award these funds to eligible students according to their own financial aid packaging policies. Institutions determine which eligible students receive awards and how much they receive.
In addition to wages for students, institutions may use FWS funds for the following purposes:
|All||Type of Institution||Status|
|2 - Yr Public||4 - Yr Public||Private||Prop.||Full-Time||Part-Time|
|$30,000 & Over||4.3||0.8||2.6||13.2||0.7||5.7||0.3|
|$10,000 & Over||1.4||0.9||2.2||3.0||0.6||4.3||0.5|
* Undergraduates only
NOTE: A percentage of participation is for each grouping of students that is described by the intersecting row and column descriptors (e.g., 1.1% for graduate students attending 4-year Public Institutions).
In a 1990 review of research concerned with college work experience for students (II.4), three patterns appeared to emerge: