A r c h i v e d  I n f o r m a t i o n

Biennial Evaluation Report - FY 93-94

Chapter 335

Special Institutions for Persons with Disabilities

Programs

A. American Printing House for the Blind (APH)

(CFDA No. 84.998)

I. Program Profile

Legislation: Act to Promote the Education of the Blind of March 3, 1879, as amended (20 U.S.C 101 et seq.) (no expiration date).

Purpose: To provide high-quality special educational materials to legally blind persons enrolled in educational programs below the college level. Materials are manufactured and made available free of charge to schools and States through proportional allotments based on the number of blind students in each State.

Funding History 1/

Fiscal Year Appropriation Fiscal Year Appropriation
1965 $ 865,000 1986 $5,263,000
1970 1,404,000 1987 5,500,000
1975 1,967,000 1988 5,266,000
1980 4,349,000 1989 5,335,000
1981 4,921,000 1990 5,663,000
1982 5,000,000 1991 6,136,000
1983 5,000,000 1992 5,900,000
1984 5,000,000 1993 6,298,000
1985 5,000,000 1994 6,463,000

1/ Excludes a permanent appropriation of $10,000 for all years; reflects enacted supplementals, rescissions, and reappropriations.

II. Program Information and Analysis

Performance Indicators

APH expected to determine the impact of its services or materials by reporting the increase of numbers of customers served in 1992 compared to 1993 and by:

Population Targeting

To be eligible for services, a student must be legally blind and enrolled in an educational program below the college level for 20 hours or more per week. APH estimated that of the 51,813 students served in 1993, 27 percent were visual readers, 10 percent auditory readers, 10 percent braille readers, 22 percent pre-readers, and 31 percent non-readers. Additionally, of the total students served in 1993, 82 percent were enrolled in public school programs, 9 percent in residential programs, 5 percent in rehabilitation programs, and 4 percent in programs for the multiple-handicapped.

Services

APH maintains an extensive inventory of special educational materials for the blind. These include text materials in braille, large type, and recorded form; tangible teaching devices, microcomputer hardware and software, educational tests, special instructional aids, tools, and supplies necessary for the education of students who are blind. APH provides advisory services for consumers, including visits to approximately 20 agencies or programs each year to inform administrators and teachers about available materials. In addition, APH conducts basic and applied research to develop new educational materials for use in educating students who are blind.

Program Administration

The Act to Promote the Education of the Blind, as amended, authorized the Federal government to provide an appropriation to APH to manufacture and distribute special educational materials free of charge to schools and programs serving students who are blind, enrolled in educational programs below the college level. APH has two standing advisory committees: one establishes the need for new publications and the second oversees research and development. The funds provided under this Act represent approximately 42.1 percent of APH's total budget in FY 1993. Materials are available to each State and territory in proportion to their share of the total national enrollment of students who are blind. This enrollment is determined by an annual census administered by APH.

Outcomes

The American Printing House for the Blind served 51,813 students in FY 1993, an increase of 1,733 above the 1992 level of 50,080 students. Examples of materials under development in 1993 include:

APH will maximize its advisory services in a more cost-effective and efficient method through the development of professionally scripted video presentations for outreach and field activities.

APH is developing a National Comprehensive Listing System (NCLS) which is an expansion of its existing database known as the Central Automated Resource List (APH-CARL) and includes not just textbooks but all books available in alternate format on a national level. Such a complete database will provide easy access for students, parents, and service providers to locate necessary materials for the educational equity and literacy of persons who are visually impaired.

Management Improvement Strategies

The APH strategic plan was updated in March 1992; five major goals and objectives designed to achieve those goals were identified and communicated to all employees.

III. Sources of Information

  1. Program files.

  2. Study of the American Printing House for the Blind and Study of Parental Perspectives on Services for the Visually Impaired (Washington, DC: Pelavin Associates, June 1991).

IV. Planned Studies

None.

V. Contacts for Further Information

Program Operations:
Ramon Rodriquez, (202) 205-8174
Fran Parrotta, (202) 205-8196

Program Studies:
Barbara Vespucci, (202) 401-3630

B. National Technical Institute for the Deaf (NTID)

(CFDA No. 84.998)

I. Program Profile

Legislation: Title II of the Education of the Deaf Act (EDA) of 1986, P.L. 99-371, as amended by Public Laws 102-421 and 103-73 (20 U.S.C. 4301 et seq.). (expires September 30, 1997).

Purpose: To promote the employment of people who are deaf by providing technical and professional education for the Nation's youth who are deaf. The National Technical Institute of the Deaf also conducts applied research and offers training in occupational and employment-related aspects of hearing loss, including communication assessment and instruction, and education and cognition.

Funding History

Fiscal Year Appropriation Fiscal Year Appropriation
1970 $ 2,851,000 1987 $32,000,000
1975 9,819,000 1/ 1988 32,592,000
1980 17,349,000 2/ 1989 33,326,000
1981 20,305,000 1990 36,070,000 4/, 5/
1982 26,300,000 1991 37,212,000
1983 26,300,000 1992 39,439,000
1984 28,000,000 1993 40,713,000 6/
1985 31,400,000 1994 41,836,000 7/
1986 30,624,000 3/

1/ Includes $1,981,000 for construction.
2/ Includes $2,729,000 for construction.
3/ Includes $1,400,000 for construction.
4/ Includes $ 476,000 for construction.
5/ Includes $ 888,000 for projects to serve low-functioning persons who are deaf, to be administered by the Rehabilitation Services Administration.
6/ Includes $ 351,000 for construction.
7/ Incluseds $193,000 for construction.

II. Program Information and Analysis

Performance Indicators

During the past two years NTID developed and began implementation of a strategic plan that will:

Population Targeting

NTID provides a residential higher education facility for the postsecondary technical training and education of the Nation's young people who are deaf or hard-of-hearing. NTID serves students with an average hearing loss of 92 decibels. In FY 1993, a total of 1,130 students were enrolled, of whom 275 were in technical fields and 338 in professional disciplines. In addition, 275 persons participated in the NTID Summer Vestibule Program which is a four-week experience that allows new students to engage in career exploration and decision-making, adjust to college life, and assess their academic skills and competencies. Students get hands-on experience and information about various programs.

Services

NTID offers a variety of technical programs at the certificate, diploma, and associate degree levels, including majors in business, engineering, science, and visual communications. Students at NTID may also take courses through the other eight colleges of the Rochester Institute of Technology (RIT). The academic programs are supplemented by support services and special programs such as tutoring, note-taking, interpreting, special educational media, cooperative work experience, and job placement. In addition, NTID conducts applied research and provides training in occupational and employment-related aspects of hearing loss, communication assessment, and educational techniques to professionals in the field of deafness, and to others working with or for people who are deaf.

Program Administration

The Department of Education contracts with the Rochester Institute of Technology to provide the facilities and core services necessary to operate NTID. NTID is administered as one of eight colleges at RIT. RIT programs are open to NTID students seeking course work beyond that offered by NTID, or degrees beyond the associate degree level. The Federal appropriation for NTID supports educational programs for persons who are deaf and represents approximately 83 percent of NTID's total budget.

Outcomes

NTID awarded 202 degrees in FY 1993, and 94 percent of those eligible for the labor force were employed. Approximately 100 publications developed by NTID are available for distribution to the public.

Management Improvement Strategies

In accordance with the EDA Amendments of 1992, the Department has assessed the need for modification of the existing agreement with RIT for the operation of NTID. As a result of that assessment, the Department, with input from RIT/NTID, is drafting a new agreement. The 1992 Amendments also contained a number of provisions to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of NTID's operations and the Department's ability to monitor and evaluate the Institute's programs and activities. The Department of Education is working with NTID to contain expenditures and to increase non-Federal revenues while preserving the quality and availability of programs. In response to the December 1993, GAO report (III.4.) and the EDA Amendments of 1992, NTID has established separate accounts to track the expenditure of Federal and non-Federal funds and, in addition, has developed policies that apply to educational institutions and other organizations that receive Federal funds for a number of expenditure areas.

In FYs 1992 and 1993, NTID developed and began implementation of a comprehensive strategic plan for the next decade. The plan includes a review and evaluation of current strategies, and suggests the elimination of some programs as well as the creation of new academic offerings in order to provide students with more comprehensive up-to-date educational opportunities. Significant developments are the creation of Centers for Arts and Sciences; Baccalaureate and Graduate Studies; Research, Teaching and Learning; Institutional Services; Student Resources; Outreach; and Technical Studies.

The Affirmative Action Advisory Committee provides recommendations regarding affirmative action at NTID throughout the strategic planning process. NTID implemented its affirmative action and equal opportunities program. The percentage of ethnic minority employees is 10 percent, and employees with disabilities represent 21 percent of NTID's work force. Of NTID's 59 minority employees, 37 are black, while 101 of the 112 employees with disabilities have hearing impairments. Of the 517 staff in executive, faculty, or professional positions, 46 are minorities and 100 have disabilities. The plan also calls for continued efforts to recruit deaf and other minority faculty and staff members and to substantially increase the number of deaf minority and women employees throughout NTID.

III. Sources of Information

  1. Program Files.

  2. The Education of the Deaf Act of 1986, as amended by Public Laws 102-421 and 103-73.

  3. The 1993 Annual Report of the National Technical Institute for the Deaf.

  4. Deaf Education: Improved Oversight Needed for National Technical Institute for the Deaf, (Washington, D.C.: General Accounting Office, GAO/HRD-94-23, December, 1993).

  5. Deaf Education: Cost and Student Characteristics at Federally Assisted Schools, (Washington, D.C.: General Accounting Office, GAO/HRD-86-64BR, February 14, 1986).

  6. Educating Students at Gallaudet and the National Technical Institute for the Deaf, (Washington, D.C.: General Accounting Office, GAO/HRD-85-34, March 22, 1985).

IV. Planned Studies

None.

V. Contacts for Further Information

Program Operations:
Ramon F. Rodriquez, (202) 205-8174
Fran Parrotta, (202) 205-8196

Program Studies:
Barbara Vespucci, (202) 401-3630

C. Gallaudet University

(CFDA No. 84.998)

I. Program Profile

Legislation: Education of the Deaf Act (EDA) of 1986, P.L. 99-371 as amended by Public Laws 102-421 and 103-83 (20 U.S.C. 21301 et seq.) (expires September 30, 1997).

Purpose: To provide elementary, secondary, college-preparatory, undergraduate, and continuing education programs for persons who are deaf, and graduate programs relating to deafness for both hearing and deaf persons; to conduct basic and applied research related to deafness; and to offer public service programs to persons who are deaf and to persons who work with these individuals.

Funding History

Fiscal Year Appropriation Fiscal Year Appropriation
1970 $ 6,400,000 1/ 1987 $62,000,000
1975 35,595,000 2/ 1988 65,998,000
1980 48,768,000 3/ 1989 67,643,000
1981 49,768,000 4/ 1990 67,643,000
1982 52,000,000 5/ 1991 72,262,000 6/
1983 52,000,000 1991 76,540,000 7/
1984 56,000,000 1992 77,589,000 8/
1985 58,700,000 1993 78,435,000 9/
1986 59,334,000 1994 78,435,000 9/

1/ Includes $ 1,218,000 for construction.
2/ Includes $18,213,000 for construction.
3/ Includes $10,730,000 for construction.
4/ Includes $ 6,594,000 for construction.
5/ Includes $ 1,600,000 for construction.
6/ Includes $ 2,440,000 for construction.
7/ Includes $ 2,500,000 for construction.
8/ Includes $ 2,455,000 for construction.
9/ Includes $ 1,000,000 for construction.

II. Program Information and Analysis

Performance Indicators

Gallaudet University has been making significant progress in its programs and operations by:

Population Targeting

Programs at Gallaudet University primarily serve persons who are deaf or hard-of-hearing. A study by the General Accounting Office (GAO) in 1985 (III.1) found that 89 percent of entering students had a hearing loss of 70 decibels or greater and that 64 percent had profound hearing losses of 90 decibels or greater. During FY 1993, Gallaudet enrolled 2,287 preparatory, undergraduate, special, and graduate students. Gallaudet University also operates two federally funded elementary and secondary programs: 1) The Model Secondary School for Deaf (MSSD), which enrolled 344 secondary students, including 41 Postsecondary Enrichment Program students, in FY 1993; and 2) The Kendall Demonstration Elementary School (KDES) which enrolled 192 students in FY 1993. The EDA Amendments of 1992 broadened the focus of these two programs to include students who are not college bound and students with a broad spectrum of needs including students who are lower achieving academically, who come from non-English-speaking homes, who have secondary disabilities, who are members of minority groups, or who are from rural areas.

In FY 1993, Gallaudet University's outreach programs served 82,514 persons. The Pre-college Programs outreach and product dissemination figure for FY 1993 was 99,556. Gallaudet reports 100,000 student support services contact hours in FY 1993.

Hearing students are admitted to graduate and outreach programs, including a master's degree program in interpreting.

Services

Gallaudet University, which is a private, nonprofit educational institution, provides a wide range of educational opportunities for persons who are deaf from the elementary to postsecondary levels. It conducts a wide variety of basic and applied research, and provides public service programs for persons who are deaf and to professionals who work with persons who are deaf. To increase the effectiveness of its instructional programs, the University provides a variety of support services, including but not limited to communications training, counseling, social services, speech and audiological services, physical and occupational therapy, educational assessment and evaluation, family education, and medical services.

Program Administration

The Federal Government provides 98.7 percent of the funding for Gallaudet's elementary and secondary programs and approximately 65 percent of the funding for the University. The University is authorized by the Education of the Deaf Act of 1986 (EDA), which significantly expanded the monitoring and evaluation responsibilities of the Secretary of Education over Gallaudet's educational programs and activities and administrative operations. The operation of the institution is under the direction and control of a Board of Trustees.

Management Improvement Strategies

Gallaudet is developing a Vision Statement for the University that will guide the University's planning and determine the focus of the University's activities for the rest of the decade.

In FY 1990, Gallaudet initiated a process to reduce total staffing at the University by two percent per year over the course of 5 years. Gallaudet is in its third year of this initiative and plans to reallocate savings achieved from these reductions to provide additional funds for increases in faculty and staff compensation.

As a requirement of the 1992 Education of the Deaf Act Amendments, the Department and Gallaudet University have been working on a new agreement governing the operation and national mission activities of the Model Secondary School for the Deaf and the Kendall Demonstration Elementary School. In addition, the Amendments extend protections under Part B of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act to children referred to these schools by parents or guardians, and contain provisions broadening the focus of the programs to include students not college bound and students with a broad spectrum of needs.

Also as a result of the 1992 EDA Amendments, the University has improved and expanded its annual reporting to the Department; has established policies prohibiting the use of Federal funds in specific areas; and has developed policies governing the allowability of expenditures in other specified areas.

In FY 1993, the Department completed a study of Gallaudet University's management, planning, and budget processes. The objective of the study was to assess the availability of information at Gallaudet that could be used to evaluate the effectiveness of the University's budgetary and planning processes, in addition to how operational and programmatic priorities are derived, and how well Gallaudet's priorities reflect the Federal mandate for its programs. A number of observations and recommendations have been raised by the study and the Department plans to work with the University to determine what changes may be indicated to address the study recommendations (III.5.).

Outcomes

Gallaudet University awarded degrees to 339 students in FY 1993. Of this number, 10 associate, 239 bachelor's, 89 master's and 1 Ph.D. degrees were earned.

III. Sources of Information

  1. Educating Students at Gallaudet and the National Institute for the Deaf (Washington, DC: General Accounting Office GAO/HRD 85-34, March 22, 1985).

  2. Deaf Education: Cost and Student Characteristics at Federally Assisted Schools (Washington, DC: GAO/HRD-86-64BR, February 14, 1986).

  3. Deaf Education: The National Mission of Gallaudet's Elementary and Secondary Schools (Washington, DC: GAO/HRD-87-133, September 30, 1987).

  4. The Utility of Selected Data Bases for the Analysis of Educational Outcomes and Expenditures for Deaf Students (Washington, DC: Pelavin Associates, April 1990).

  5. Review of Accounting and Budgeting Processes at Gallaudet University; Gallaudet University: A Comparative Analysis; and Gallaudet University Annual Budget Request Package (Washington, D.C.: Ernst and Young, August 1993).

  6. The Education of the Deaf Act of 1986, as amended by Public Laws 102-421 and 103-73.

  7. Gallaudet University's Annual Reports for Fiscal Years 1992 and 1993.

IV. Planned Studies

None.

V. Contacts for Further Information

Program Operations:
Ramon Rodriquez, (202) 205-8174
Fran Parrotta, (202) 205-8196

Program Studies:
Barbara Vespucci, (202) 401-3630

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