A r c h i v e d I n f o r m a t i o n
Biennial Evaluation Report - FY 93-94
Bilingual Education Programs--Training and Technical Assistance--Part C
(CFDA No. 84.195)
I. Program Profile
Legislation: Part C of the Bilingual Education Act of 1988, Title VII of the Elementary and Secondary School Act, as amended, (20 U.S.C. 3321-3325) (expires September 30, 1999).
Purpose: To develop the human resources necessary to conduct instructional programs for students with limited English proficiency (LEP).
|1969 ||$0 ||1986 ||$32,123,000 |
|1970 ||0 ||1987 ||33,564,000 |
|1975 ||21,000,000 ||1988 ||35,447,000 |
|1980 ||30,325,000 ||1989 ||30,413,000 |
|1981 ||32,075,000 ||1990 ||31,913,000 |
|1982 ||28,836,000 ||1991 ||36,065,000 |
|1983 ||31,288,000 ||1992 ||36,000,000 |
|1984 ||32,610,000 ||1993 ||35,708,000 |
|1985 ||33,566,000 ||1994 ||36,431,000 |
Grants and contracts are awarded under Part C to support the following activities:
- Educational Personnel Training. Provides financial assistance to institutions of higher education (IHEs) to establish, operate, or improve projects to train teachers, administrators, paraprofessionals, parents, and other personnel participating or preparing to participate in programs for LEP students.
- Fellowships. Provides fellowships at IHEs for postbaccalaureate study in bilingual education including teaching, training, curriculum development, research and evaluation, and administration. Recipients are required to work in an area related to educational programs for LEP persons or to repay their fellowships.
- Training Development and Improvement Program. Provides financial assistance to IHEs to encourage reform, innovation, and improvement in training programs.
- Short-Term Training. Provides financial assistance to local education agencies (LEAs), State education agencies (SEAs), for-profit and non-profit organizations, and IHEs, for the operation of short-term training projects to improve the skills of education personnel and parents participating in programs for LEP persons.
- Multifunctional Resource Centers (MRCs). Contractors provide technical assistance and training to SEA and LEA staff providing programs for LEP students.
II. Program Information and Analysis
The nation's growing enrollment of LEP students is discussed in Chapter 201. Over 363,000 teachers (15 percent of all teachers in the nation) taught LEP students in school year 1991-92, yet only about one third had taken college courses concerning the implications of second-language acquisition and cultural differences for instruction. When inservice training (averaging between 9 and 34 hours annually) is included, 55 percent of teachers of LEP students had some training that included these issues. Only 10 percent of teachers of LEP students were certified in bilingual education and 8 percent in English-as-a-second language (ESL) instruction. Eighty percent of districts reported "some" or "a lot" of difficulty hiring bilingual teachers. Fifty-three percent reported the same difficulty hiring ESL teachers (III.1).
In FY 1993, Part C funds were awarded as follows (III.5):
|Program ||Number of Awards ||Funding|
|Education Personnel Training ||87 ||$15,375,000 |
|Fellowships ||40 ||4,962,000 |
|Training Development and Improvement ||3 ||892,249 |
|Short-Term Training ||32 ||3,455,000 |
|MRCs ||16 ||11,024,000 |
|TOTAL ||178 ||$35,708,249 |
Faced with the need to ensure that more teachers are trained to work effectively with LEP students, OBEMLA has initiated Training Development and Improvement (TDI) grants. To identify effective approaches, three types of grants have been funded at major universities. The first project hosted on its campus a 14-day session for college and university deans, curriculum developers and other key staff analyzing current practices of teacher training to work with LEP students, identifying ways to improve training for all teachers in this area, and developing a strategic plan for each participating college of education to improve its teacher training in this area. A second project focuses on reaching broad audiences of educators through presentations at major education conferences. A third project involves a group of institutions of higher education working together to restructure training in colleges of education to ensure that all teachers are better prepared to work with LEP students.
The Bilingual Fellows Program has assisted in graduating a majority (including 82 percent of master degree students and 46 percent of doctoral degree students) of the graduate students supported by the program.
The program is building education capacity to provide bilingual education services to LEP students. Between 1979 and 1993, 2,337 individuals have received bilingual education fellowships. Thirty-nine percent were employed as teachers or local education agency (LEA) administrators after completing their degrees. In addition, this program is building professional capacity by training the researchers, evaluators and college faculty who advance professional practice and educate tomorrow's teachers. Of the Fellows who have now completed degrees and have a reported occupational category, over a third (35 percent) are faculty members or administrators at colleges or other institutions of higher education. Another 11 percent list research, evaluation, or curriculum development as their occupation.
Status of Bilingual Education Fellowships Awarded 1979-1993
|Completed fellowship and working in bilingual field: ||64% |
|Currently enrolled as full-time student: ||25 |
|Degree not yet completed and currently working in qualified bilingual education job: ||4 |
|Deferment of payment: ||2 |
|Waiver for special conditions: ||1 |
|Action pending on account: ||1 |
|Account 30 days or more delinquent: ||2 |
|Account written off for failure to meet work requirement and nonrepayment: ||0 |
An evaluation of the Bilingual Fellowship program indicates that, for the period 1979 to 1987 (III.2):
- 52 percent of all Fellows had completed their advanced degrees. The highest rate of degree completion was achieved by holders of master's degrees (83 percent), followed by post-master's (72 percent), and doctoral degrees (46 percent). Doctoral students comprised 1,432 of the total 1,721 Fellows. (Note: nationwide, the average time required to complete a doctoral degree is in excess of 8 years.)
- Of the Fellows who had not completed their degrees, 312 (38 percent) had withdrawn due to discontinuation of program funding; the cost of further enrollment would have been borne by individual Fellows.
- More than 90 percent of Fellows who had completed either a doctorate or a post-master's degree, and 79 percent of those who had completed a master's degree, were employed in an authorized bilingual education-related activity.
- 93 percent of Fellows were in compliance with their contractual obligation to the Fellowship Program, including 2 percent in the process of repaying their fellowships; 4 percent were not in compliance (delinquent or unable to be located), and 3 percent were being asked for more information.
No new Fellows were funded during FYs 1988 and 1989; 185 individuals began participation in the Fellowship Program in FY 1990 and 131 began in FY 1991.
An evaluation of the Education Personnel Training Programs found the following (III.3):
- During 1990-91, Title VII EPTP funds supported 104 separate projects offering programs of study at the baccalaureate level or higher, located at 81 institutions of higher education and 27 States.
- The most prevalent type of EPTP project offered a master's degree, either alone or in combination with other degree/endorsement projects.
- Short-term endorsement programs typically requiring only 12 to 18 semester credit hours for completion are seen by some respondents as a cost-effective use of limited resources, more quickly producing a greater number of qualified teachers of LEP students than otherwise possible. Others perceive this type of program as not affording sufficient time or coursework for the preparation of well-qualified bilingual education or ESL teachers. In addition, by concentrating on providing supplemental training to already certified teachers, these programs fail to address the need for newly qualified teachers.
- Nearly two-thirds of all projects reported providing programs in both bilingual education and ESL. Bilingual education training generally requires courses in bilingual methods and demonstration of proficiency in a non-English language. ESL training usually includes courses on ESL methodology and does not require proficiency in a non-English language.
- Upon completion of their training, 83 percent of these students planned to take a position in bilingual/ESL education, and 12 percent planned to take a position in education, but not in bilingual/ESL education. Of those planning to take a position in bilingual/ESL education, almost half reported the job would be their first in the area, indicating that Title VII is helping to increase the number of educators who serve LEP children.
- Projects spend an average of 62 percent of Title VII grant funds on student aid, including stipends, books, travel expenses, and tuition and fees. An additional average of 25 percent was spent on administrator, staff, and faculty salaries and benefits. The remainder average of 13 percent was distributed across program evaluation, materials and supplies, equipment, travel, and overhead.
Management Improvement Strategies
The Multifunctional Resource Centers (MRCs) are incorporating the National Education Goals into their teacher training and technical assistance functions. The implementation of these goals includes an emphasis on early childhood education and school readiness, increasing stress on math and science education for LEP students, and leadership training for principals, superintendents and other school officials administering institutions which house Title VII projects.
III. Sources of Information
- Descriptive Study of Services to Limited English Proficient Students, Volume 1--Summary and Conclusions. (Arlington, VA: Development Associates, Inc., 1993).
- Title VII Bilingual Education Fellowship Program Study. (Silver Spring, MD: The MayaTech Corporation, 1991).
- A National Study of the ESEA Title VII Bilingual Education Personnel Training Program. (Research Triangle Park, NC: Research Triangle Institute, Inc., 1992).
- Young, M.B. et al. LEP Students: Characteristics and School Services. Descriptive Phase Report of the National Longitudinal Evaluation of the Effectiveness of Services for Language Minority Limited English Proficient Students. Development Associates, Inc., and Research Triangle Institute, Inc., 1984).
- Program files.
IV. Planned Studies
V. Contacts for Further Informaion
- Program Operations:
- John Ovard, (202) 205-5576, Division of National Programs, OBEMLA
- Program Studies:
- Dang Pham,(202) 732-5463, Research and Evaluation, OBEMLA
Jeffery Rodamar, (202) 401-1958
[Bilingual Education Programs--Data Collection, Evaluation, and Research--Part B]
[Emergency Immigrant Education Program]