Engaging Parents in Education: Lessons From Five Parental Information And Resource Centers
June 2007
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1 Henderson, A. and Mapp, K. 2002. A New Wave of Evidence: The Impact of School, Parent and Community Connections on Student Achievement, p. 7. Austin, Tex.: Southwest Educational Development Laboratory.

2 Ibid., p. 7.

3 Parental Involvement: Title I, Part A, Non-Regulatory Guidance, April 23, 2004, p. 3.

4 Available at
Last accessed on June 8, 2007.

5 The funds are intended to target three overarching categories of parent involvement: advocacy and decision-making (including school improvement planning and creation of a required parent involvement plan); communicating information and exercising options (including providing a school report card, informing parents about school improvement and choice options, and assisting parents in exercising their options); and partnering with schools to improve student achievement (e.g., creating a school-parent compact).

6 When a school has been identified as being in need of improvement, its district must offer students at the school an opportunity to choose and transfer to another school in the district that is not in need of improvement.

7 If a school remains in need of improvement for a second year, it must offer students from low-income families access to federally approved "supplemental educational services," including tutoring and other academic supports, that will be paid for by the local district.

8 McDermott, P., and Rothenberg, J. 2000, October. Why urban parents resist involvement in their children's elementary education. The Qualitative Report, 5(3 & 4).

9 Academic Development Institute. 2004. A Parent Guide to No Child Left Behind. Lincoln, Ill.: Author.

10 The Indiana Center for Family, School and Community Partnerships. (n.d.) A Parent's Guide to Understanding NCLB & P.L. 221. Indianapolis: Author. Available at (Click on link for No Child Left Behind and choose A Parent's Guide pdf.) Last accessed on June 9, 2007.

11 Epstein, J. L., Sanders, M. G., Simon, B. S., Salinas, K. C., Rodriguez Jansorn, N. R., and Van Voorhis, F. L. 2002. School, Family, and Community Partnerships: Your Handbook for Action (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin Press.

12 Illinois State Board of Education. 2001. A Parent's Guide: The Educational Rights of Students with Disabilities. Springfield, Ill.: Author. Available at
Last accessed on June 8, 2007.

13 Cassidy, J. C. 2005. Evaluation of the Indiana Center for Family, School, and Community Partnerships' Parent Information Resource Center Programs. Ball State University. Unpublished evaluation.

14 Ibid., p. 16.

15 Epstein et al., op. cit.

16 Filby, N. 2006. Approach to Methodological Rigor in the Innovation Guides. Working paper. San Francisco: WestEd.

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