The *40th Annual Report to Congress, 2018*, showcases data collected from states. The report also includes information from studies, evaluations, and databases of the Institute of Education Sciences and Census Bureau. Some key findings from Section I of the report, “Summary and Analysis of *IDEA* Section 618 Data at the National Level” follow. To more completely understand the meaning and context for each of the findings featured below, the reader is advised to review the exhibit cited and the additional associated bulleted text.

## Infants and Toddlers Served Under *IDEA*, Part C

In 2016, there were 372,896 infants and toddlers birth through age 2 served under

*IDEA*, Part C. Of those infants and toddlers, 369,672 were served in the 50 states and the District of Columbia. This number represented 3.1 percent of the birth-through-age-2 population in the 50 states and the District of Columbia (Exhibit 1).From 2007 through 2016, the percentage of the resident population of infants and toddlers birth through age 2 served under

*IDEA*, Part C, increased from 2.6 percent to 3.1 percent. The percentage of 2-year-olds in the resident population of infants and toddlers served under*IDEA*, Part C, either increased from the previous year or was approximately the same as in the previous year from 2007 through 2012. Between 2012 and 2013, the percentage decreased from 4.7 percent to 4.6 percent. The percentage increased to 4.9 percent in 2014 and remained there in 2015. In 2016, the percentage increased to 5.2 percent. The percentage of 1-year-olds in the resident population of infants and toddlers served under*IDEA*, Part C, either increased from the previous year or was approximately the same as in the previous year from 2007 through 2010. Between 2010 and 2011, the percentage decreased from 2.7 percent to 2.6 percent and remained at that level in 2012. In 2013, the percentage again reached 2.7 percent and it remained there in 2014, then increased to 2.8 percent in 2015. In 2016, the percentage increased again to 2.9 percent. From 2007 through 2014, the percentage of infants and toddlers under 1 year in the resident population served under*IDEA*, Part C, fluctuated between 1 and 1.1 percent. In 2015, the percentage increased to 1.2 percent and remained there in 2016 (Exhibit 2).Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander and White infants and toddlers had risk ratios of 1.5 and 1.1, respectively, indicating that infants and toddlers in each of these racial/ethnic groups were slightly more likely than those in all other racial/ethnic groups combined to be served under

*IDEA*, Part C. American Indian or Alaska Native, Asian, and Black or African American infants and toddlers, and infants and toddlers associated with two or more racial/ethnic groups had risk ratios of 0.9, 0.8, 0.9, and 0.9, respectively, indicating that infants and toddlers in each of these groups were slightly less likely than those in all other racial/ethnic groups combined to be served under*IDEA*, Part C. Hispanic/Latino infants and toddlers, with a risk ratio of 1, were as likely to be served under Part C as the infants and toddlers of all other racial/ethnic groups combined (Exhibit 3).Cumulative child count data reveal Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander and White infants and toddlers had risk ratios of 1.3 and 1.1, respectively, indicating that infants and toddlers in each of these racial/ethnic groups were slightly more likely than those in all other racial/ethnic groups combined to be served under

*IDEA*, Part C. American Indian or Alaska Native, Asian, Black or African American infants and toddlers, and infants and toddlers associated with two or more racial/ethnic groups had risk ratios of 0.9, 0.8, 0.9, and 0.8, respectively, indicating that infants and toddlers in each of these groups were slightly less likely than those in all other racial/ethnic groups combined to be served under*IDEA*, Part C. Hispanic/Latino infants and toddlers, with a risk ratio of 1, were as likely to be served under Part C as the infants and toddlers of all other racial/ethnic groups combined (Exhibit 4).In 2016, of the 372,896 infants and toddlers served under Part C, 88.9 percent received their early intervention services primarily in the

*home*. The category of*community-based setting*was reported as the primary early intervention setting for 7.8 percent of those served under Part C. Consequently, 96.7 percent of infants and toddlers served under*IDEA*, Part C, in 2016 received their early intervention services primarily in natural environments, which are defined as the*home*or a*community-based setting*(Exhibit 5).In 2016,

*home*was the primary early intervention service setting for at least 87 percent of the infants and toddlers birth through age 2 served under*IDEA*, Part C, in each racial/ethnic group. The largest percentage of infants and toddlers served under*IDEA*, Part C, who received early intervention services in a*community-based setting*was associated with American Indian or Alaska Native children (11.9 percent), while the smallest percentage served in this setting was associated with Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander children (5.0 percent) (Exhibit 6).Of the Part C exiting statuses in 2015–16,

*Part B eligible, exiting Part C*accounted for the largest percentage of infants and toddlers. Specifically, this category accounted for 118,756 of 326,433, or 36.4 percent, of infants and toddlers. An additional 3.4 percent of the infants and toddlers were found to be eligible for Part B but continued to receive services under Part C.*No longer eligible for Part C prior to reaching age 3*was the second most prevalent category of exiting status, as it accounted for 16.1 percent of infants and toddlers.*Part B eligibility not determined*and*withdrawal by parent (or guardian)*accounted for 11.2 percent and 12.4 percent, respectively (Exhibit 7).In 2015–16, 118,756, or 60.9 percent, of the 194,869 children served under

*IDEA*, Part C, who reached age 3 were determined to be*Part B eligible, exiting Part C*. An additional 5.7 percent of these children were found to be eligible for Part B but continued to receive services under Part C. Eligibility for Part B was not determined for 18.7 percent of the children served under*IDEA*, Part C, who had reached age 3. The remaining 14.7 percent of the children served under Part C who had reached age 3 exited Part C and were determined to be not eligible for Part B. The children who were not eligible for Part B included those who exited with referrals to other programs (9.0 percent) and those who exited with no referrals (5.7 percent) (Exhibit 8).During 2015–16, a total of 125

*written, signed complaints*were received through the dispute resolution process for infants and toddlers birth through age 2 served under*IDEA*, Part C. A report was issued for 102 (81.6 percent) of the complaints, while 20 (16.0 percent) of the complaints were withdrawn or dismissed. Only 3 (2.4 percent) of the complaints that were received during the reporting period were pending or unresolved by the end of the period (Exhibit 9).A total of 97

*due process complaints*were received during 2015–16 through the dispute resolution process for infants and toddlers birth through age 2 served under*IDEA*, Part C. For 79 (81.4 percent) of the*due process complaints*received during the reporting period, the complaint was withdrawn or dismissed. For 13 (13.4 percent) of the*due process complaints*received, a hearing was conducted, and a written legal decision was issued. For the remaining five complaints (5.2 percent), a hearing was still pending as of the end of the reporting period (Exhibit 10).During 2015–16, a total of 126

*mediation requests*were received through the dispute resolution process for infants and toddlers birth through age 2 served under*IDEA*, Part C. A mediation was conducted before the end of the reporting period for 57 (45.2 percent) of the*mediation requests*received. The mediation that was held in nine (7.1 percent) of these cases was related to a*due process complaint,*while the session held in 48 (38.1 percent) of these cases was not related to a*due process complaint*. Of the 69*mediation requests*received that did not result in a mediation being held by the end of the reporting period, 65 (51.6 percent) had been withdrawn, dismissed, or otherwise ended without a mediation being held. The remaining four (3.2 percent) were still pending at the end of the reporting period (Exhibit 11).

## Children Ages 3 Through 5 Served Under *IDEA*, Part B

In 2016, 759,801 children ages 3 through 5 in 2016 were served under Part B, in the 48 states for which data were available, the District of Columbia, BIE schools, Puerto Rico, the four outlying areas, and the three freely associated states. Of these children, 744,414 were served in 48 states, the District of Columbia, and BIE schools. This number represented 6.4 percent of the resident population ages 3 through 5. Between 2007 and 2016, the number of children ages 3 through 5 served under

*IDEA*, Part B, in the jurisdictions for which data were available increased from 709,136 to 759,801. This addition of 50,665 children represented a 7.1 percent increase in the number of children served. In 2007, the percentage of the resident population ages 3 through 5 served under*IDEA*, Part B, in the jurisdictions for which data was available was 5.8 percent. In 2009, the percentage increased to 5.9 percent, and it remained there until 2012, when the percentage reached 6 percent. The percentage stayed at 6 percent through 2013 before increasing to 6.1 percent in 2014, then to 6.2 percent in 2015. In 2016, the percentage reached 6.4 percent (Exhibit 12).In 2016, the most prevalent disability category of children ages 3 through 5 served under

*IDEA*, Part B, was*speech or language impairment*(specifically, 323,789 of 759,801 children, or 42.6 percent). The next most common disability category was*developmental delay*(37.6 percent), followed by*autism*(10.1 percent). The children ages 3 through 5 represented by the category “Other disabilities combined” accounted for the remaining 9.7 percent of children served under*IDEA*, Part B (Exhibit 13).In 2016, American Indian or Alaska Native, Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander, and White children ages 3 through 5 had risk ratios above 1 (i.e., 1.3, 1.2, and 1.1, respectively). This indicates that the children in each of these groups were more likely to be served under Part B than were children ages 3 through 5 in all other racial/ethnic groups combined. Black or African American children ages 3 through 5, with a risk ratio of 1, were as likely to be served under Part B as the children ages 3 through 5 in all other racial/ethnic groups combined. Asian and Hispanic/Latino children ages 3 through 5 and children ages 3 through 5 associated with two or more racial/ethnic groups, with risk ratios of less than 1 (i.e., 0.8, 0.9, and 0.9, respectively), were less likely to be served under Part B than children ages 3 through 5 in all other racial/ethnic groups combined (Exhibit 14).

In 2016, a total of 507,272, or 66.8 percent, of the 759,801 children ages 3 through 5 served under

*IDEA*, Part B, were in a*regular early childhood program*for some amount of their time in school. Of the four categories representing children who attended a*regular early childhood program*, the category of*children attending a regular early childhood program at least 10 hours per week and receiving the majority of special education and related services in the regular early childhood program*accounted for the largest percentage of children. Moreover, as this category accounted for 39.9 percent of all children ages 3 through 5 served under*IDEA*, Part B, it represented more children than any other educational environment category. A*separate class*accounted for 22.7 percent of children ages 3 through 5 served under*IDEA*, Part B, making it the second most prevalent educational environment. Collectively, the environments of*separate school*,*residential facility*, and*home*(which are represented by the category “Other environments”), accounted for only 4.3 percent of the children ages 3 through 5 served under*IDEA*, Part B. The educational environment for the remaining students, representing only 6.2 percent of the children ages 3 through 5 served under*IDEA*, Part B, was a*service provider location or some other location that is not in any other category*(Exhibit 15).In 2016, a

*regular early childhood program*for some amount of the time spent in school was the educational environment for the majority of children ages 3 through 5 served under*IDEA*, Part B, in each racial/ethnic group. The category of*children attending a regular early childhood program at least 10 hours per week and receiving the majority of hours of special education and related services in the regular early childhood program*accounted for the largest percentage of children who attended a*regular early childhood program*for every racial/ethnic group. Moreover, for every racial/ethnic group, this category accounted for a larger percentage of the children than did any other category of educational environment. In particular, this environment accounted for 46.4 percent of American Indian or Alaska Native children, 34.7 percent of Asian children, 40.4 percent of Black or African American children, 42.4 percent of Hispanic/Latino children, 37.6 percent of Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander children, 38.8 percent of White children, and 38.8 percent of the children associated with two or more racial/ethnic groups. A*separate class*was the second most prevalent educational environment for children ages 3 through 5 served under*IDEA*, Part B, for each racial/ethnic group, except American Indian or Alaska Native children. A smaller percentage of American Indian or Alaska Native children were reported in the category representing children who attended a*separate class*(15.7 percent) than the percentage reported in the category representing*children attending a regular early childhood program at least 10 hours per week and receiving the majority of hours of special education and related services in some other location*(24.6 percent) (Exhibit 16).In 2015, a total of 37,085, or 92.9 percent, of the 39,931 full-time equivalent (FTE)

*special education teachers*who were employed to provide special education and related services for children ages 3 through 5 under*IDEA*, Part B, were highly qualified (Exhibit 17).In 2015, a total of 52,193, or 94.5 percent, of the 55,215 FTE

*special education paraprofessionals*who were employed to provide special education and related services for children ages 3 through 5 under*IDEA*, Part B, were qualified (Exhibit 18).

## Students Ages 6 Through 21 Served Under *IDEA*, Part B

In 2016, a total of 6,048,882 students ages 6 through 21 were served under

*IDEA*, Part B, in the 49 states for which data were available, the District of Columbia, BIE schools, Puerto Rico, the four outlying areas, and the three freely associated states. Of these students, 5,937,838 were served in 49 states, the District of Columbia, and BIE schools. This number represented 9 percent of the resident population ages 6 through 21. In 2007, the total number of students ages 6 through 21 served under*IDEA*, Part B, in the 50 states, the District of Columbia, BIE schools, Puerto Rico, and the four outlying areas was 5,999,205. During 2008 and 2009, the number of students served was less than in the previous year. There was some fluctuation in the number of students during the years 2010 through 2012. The number of students served increased during the years 2013 through 2015 and decreased in 2016. In 2007, 8.8 percent of the resident population ages 6 through 21 were served under Part B in the 50 states, the District of Columbia, and BIE schools. Between 2008 and 2010, the percentage of the population in these jurisdictions served gradually decreased to 8.4 percent. The percentage served remained at 8.4 percent until 2013, when it increased to 8.5 percent and continued to increase gradually to 9 percent in 2016 (Exhibit 19).The percentage of the resident population ages 6 through 21 served under

*IDEA*, Part B, in 2007 was 8.8 percent. Thereafter, the percentage stayed the same or slightly decreased, reaching a low of 8.4 percent in 2010. The percentage remained at 8.4 until 2013 when it increased to 8.5 percent. The percentage continued to increase gradually to 9 percent in 2016. Between 2007 and 2011, the percentage of the population ages 6 through 11 served under*IDEA*, Part B, decreased gradually from 11.2 percent to 10.6 percent. The percentage increased in each year thereafter and reached 11.6 percent in 2016. The percentage of the population ages 12 through 17 served under Part B decreased gradually from 11.1 percent to 10.8 percent between 2007 and 2010, where it stayed until 2014 when the percentage reached 11 percent. The percentage increased to 11.2 percent in 2015 and 11.3 percent in 2016. The percentage of the population ages 18 through 21 served under Part B, was 1.9 percent in 2007 and 2008, and 2 percent in each year from 2009 through 2016 (Exhibit 20).In 2016, the most prevalent disability category of students ages 6 through 21 served under

*IDEA*, Part B, was*specific learning disability*(specifically, 2,336,960, or 38.6 percent, of the 6,048,882 students ages 6 through 21 served under*IDEA*, Part B). The next most common disability category was*speech or language impairment*(16.8 percent), followed by*other health impairment*(15.4 percent),*autism*(9.6 percent),*intellectual disability*(6.9 percent), and*emotional disturbance*(5.5 percent). Students ages 6 through 21 in “Other disabilities combined” accounted for the remaining 7.2 percent of students ages 6 through 21 served under*IDEA*, Part B (Exhibit 21).The percentage of the resident population ages 6 through 21 served under

*IDEA*, Part B, reported under disability categories changed by two-tenths of a percentage point or less between 2007 and 2016 for all but three categories. The percentage of the population reported under*autism*increased by 0.5 of a percentage point. The percentage of the population reported under*other health impairment*increased by 0.5 of a percentage point. The percentage of the population reported under*specific learning disability*decreased by 0.3 of a percentage point (Exhibit 22).Between 2007 and 2016, the percentage of the resident population ages 6 through 21 served under

*IDEA*, Part B, that was reported under the category of*autism*increased gradually from 0.4 percent to 0.9 percent. Between 2007 and 2016, the percentages of the populations ages 6 through 11, 12 through 17, and 18 through 21 served under*IDEA*, Part B, that were reported under the category of*autism*all increased. Specifically, the percentages of these three age groups that were reported under the category of*autism*were 94 percent, 166 percent, and 186 percent larger in 2016 than in 2007, respectively (Exhibit 23).From 2007 through 2016, the percentage of the resident population ages 6 through 21 served under

*IDEA*, Part B, that was reported under the category of*other health impairment*increased gradually from 0.9 percent to 1.4 percent. The percentages of the populations ages 6 through 11, 12 through 17, and 18 through 21 served under*IDEA*, Part B, that were reported under the category of*other health impairment*were 47 percent, 50 percent, and 63 percent larger in 2016 than in 2007, respectively (Exhibit 24).From 2007 through 2016, the percentage of the resident population ages 6 through 21 served under

*IDEA*, Part B, that was reported under the category of*specific learning disability*decreased from 3.8 percent to 3.5 percent. The percentages of the populations ages 6 through 11, 12 through 17, and 18 through 21 served under*IDEA*, Part B, that were reported under the category of*specific learning disability*were 3 percent, 10 percent, and 12 percent smaller in 2016 than in 2007, respectively (Exhibit 25).In 2016, American Indian or Alaska Native, Black or African American, and Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander students ages 6 through 21 had risk ratios above 1 (i.e., 1.7, 1.4, and 1.5, respectively). This indicates that the students in each group were more likely to be served under Part B than were the students ages 6 through 21 in all other racial/ethnic groups combined. Asian and White students ages 6 through 21, with risk ratios of less than 1 (i.e., 0.5, and 0.9, respectively), were less likely to be served under Part B than were the students ages 6 through 21 in all other racial/ethnic groups combined. Hispanic/Latino students and students associated with two or more races, ages 6 through 21, each had a risk ratio of 1, indicating that they were as likely to be served under Part B as students ages 6 through 21 in all other racial/ethnic groups combined (Exhibit 26).

With a risk ratio of 4.2, American Indian or Alaska Native students ages 6 through 21 were much more likely to be served under

*IDEA*, Part B, for*developmental delay*than were students ages 6 through 21 in all other racial/ethnic groups combined. The risk ratio for American Indian or Alaska Native students ages 6 through 21 was equal to 1 for*autism*and larger than 1 for each of the other disability categories. Asian students ages 6 through 21 were 1.1 times more likely to be served under*IDEA*, Part B, for the disability categories of*autism*and*hearing impairment*than were students ages 6 through 21 in all other racial/ethnic groups combined. The risk ratio for Asian students ages 6 through 21 was equal to 1 for*orthopedic impairment*and less than 1 for each of the other disability categories*.*The risk ratios for Black or African American students ages 6 through 21 served under*IDEA*, Part B, were larger than 1 for the following disability categories:*developmental delay*(1.6),*emotional disturbance*(2.0),*intellectual disability*(2.2),*multiple disabilities*(1.3),*other health impairment*(1.4),*specific learning disability*(1.5),*traumatic brain injury*(1.1), and*visual impairment*(1.1). The risk ratio for Black or African American students ages 6 through 21 was less than 1 for*deaf-blindness*(0.9) and*orthopedic impairment*(0.9) and equal to 1 for*autism*,*hearing impairment*, and*speech or language impairment.*With a risk ratio larger than 1, Hispanic/Latino students ages 6 through 21 were more likely to be served under*IDEA*, Part B, than were students ages 6 through 21 in all other racial/ethnic groups combined for the following disability categories:*hearing impairment*(1.4),*orthopedic impairment*(1.3),*specific learning disability*(1.4), and*speech or language impairment*(1.1). The risk ratio for Hispanic/Latino students ages 6 through 21 was equal to 1 for*deaf-blindness*,*intellectual disability*, and*visual impairment*and less than 1 for all other disability categories. Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander students ages 6 through 21 were at least two times more likely to be served under*IDEA*, Part B, for*developmental delay*(2.1),*hearing impairment*(2.7), and*multiple disabilities*(2.1) than were students ages 6 through 21 in all other racial/ethnic groups combined. The risk ratio for Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander students ages 6 through 21 was larger than the risk ratio for the students ages 6 through 21 in all other racial/ethnic groups combined for every other disability category as well. With a risk ratio larger than 1, White students ages 6 through 21 were more likely to be served under*IDEA*, Part B, than were students ages 6 through 21 in all other racial/ethnic groups combined for the following disability categories:*autism*(1.1),*multiple disabilities*(1.1),*other health impairment*(1.2), and*traumatic brain injury*(1.2). The risk ratio for White students ages 6 through 21 was equal to 1 for*deaf-blindness*,*emotional disturbance*,*speech or language impairment*, and*visual impairment*and less than 1 for all other disability categories. With a risk ratio larger than 1, students ages 6 through 21 associated with two or more races were more likely to be served under*IDEA*, Part B, than were students ages 6 through 21 in all other racial/ethnic groups combined for the following disability categories:*autism*(1.1),*developmental delay*(1.4),*emotional disturbance*(1.3), and*other health impairment*(1.1). The risk ratio for students ages 6 through 21 associated with two or more races was equal to 1 for*speech or language impairment*and*traumatic brain injury*and less than 1 for all other disability categories (Exhibit 27).For the students ages 6 through 21 served under

*IDEA*, Part B, in 2016,*specific learning disability*was the most prevalent disability category, or as prevalent as any other category, for every racial/ethnic group. In particular, this disability category accounted for 44.8 percent of American Indian or Alaska Native students, 24.4 percent of Asian students, 40.4 percent of Black or African American students, 46.4 percent of Hispanic/Latino students, 50.8 percent of Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander students, 34.5 percent of White students, and 34.2 percent of the students associated with two or more racial/ethnic groups.*Speech or language impairment*was the second or third most prevalent category for students ages 6 through 21 in every racial/ethnic group. The students served in this disability category accounted for 14.2 percent of American Indian or Alaska Native students, 24.1 percent of Asian students, 12.8 percent of Black or African American students, 17.6 percent of Hispanic/Latino students, 9.9 percent of Native Hawaiian or Other Pacific Islander students, 17.6 percent of White students, and 17.1 percent of the students associated with two or more racial/ethnic groups (Exhibit 28).In 2016, a total of 5,740,172, or 94.9 percent, of the 6,048,882 students ages 6 through 21 served under

*IDEA*, Part B, were educated in regular classrooms for at least some portion of the school day. The majority (63.1 percent) of students ages 6 through 21 served under*IDEA*, Part B, were educated*inside the regular class 80% or more of the day*. A total of 18.3 percent of students ages 6 through 21 served under*IDEA*, Part B, were educated*inside regular class 40% through 79% of the day*, and 13.4 percent were educated*inside the regular class less than 40% of the day*. Only 5.1 percent of students ages 6 through 21 served under*IDEA*, Part B, were educated outside of the regular classroom in “Other environments” (Exhibit 29).From 2007 through 2016, the percentage of students ages 6 through 21 served under

*IDEA*, Part B, educated*inside the regular class 80% or more of the day*increased from 57.2 percent to 63.1 percent. The percentage of students ages 6 through 21 served under*IDEA*, Part B, educated*inside regular class 40% through 79% of the day*decreased from 22.1 percent in 2007 to 18.6 percent in 2014. The percentage slightly increased to 18.7 percent in 2015 and then decreased to 18.3 percent in 2016. The percentage of students ages 6 through 21 served under*IDEA*, Part B, educated*inside the regular class less than 40% of the day*decreased from 15.4 percent in 2007 to 13.4 percent in in 2016. The percentage of students ages 6 through 21 served under*IDEA*, Part B, educated in “Other environments” ranged from 5 percent to 5.3 percent during the years from 2007 to 2016 (Exhibit 30).In 2016, the percentage of students ages 6 through 21 served under

*IDEA*, Part B, in each educational environment varied by disability category. More than 8 in 10 students reported under the category of*speech or language impairment*(87.0 percent) were educated*inside the regular class 80% or more of the day*. Only 17 percent of students reported under the category of*intellectual disability*and 13.7 percent of students reported under the category of*multiple disabilities*were educated*inside the regular class 80% or more of the day*. Almost one-half of students reported under the category of*intellectual disability*(49.4 percent) and students reported under the category of*multiple disabilities*(45.5 percent) were educated*inside the regular class less than 40% of the day*. In 2016, larger percentages of students reported under the categories of*deaf-blindness*(28.0 percent) and*multiple disabilities*(24.0 percent) than students reported under other disability categories were educated in “Other environments” (Exhibit 31).In 2016 for each racial/ethnic group, the largest percentage of students ages 6 through 21 served under

*IDEA*, Part B, was educated*inside the regular class 80% or more of the day.*The students who were educated*inside the regular class 80% or more of the day*accounted for at least 50 percent of the students in each of the racial/ethnic groups. The percentages of students in the racial/ethnic groups who were educated*inside the regular class 80% or more of the day*ranged from 54.9 percent to 65.9 percent. The category*inside regular class 40% through 79% of the day*accounted for between 16.4 and 26.6 percent of the students within each racial/ethnic group. Less than 20 percent of the students within each racial/ethnic group, except for Asian students (21.3 percent), were educated*inside the regular class less than 40% of the day*. “Other environments” accounted for less than 6 percent of the students within each racial/ethnic group (Exhibit 32).In school year 2015–16, between 90.9 and 95.9 percent of students served under

*IDEA*, Part B, who did not have a medical exemption, in each of grades 3 through 8 and high school participated in a math assessment. Conversely, between 4.1 and 9.1 percent did not participate (Exhibit 33).In school year 2015–16, between 91.4 and 96 percent of students served under

*IDEA*, Part B, who did not have a medical exemption, in each of grades 3 through 8 and high school participated in a reading assessment. Conversely, between 4 and 8.6 percent did not participate (Exhibit 34).In school year 2015–16, between 39.1 and 51.2 percent of students served under

*IDEA*, Part B, in each of grades 3 through 8 and high school participated in a*regular assessment based on grade-level achievement standards with accommodations*in math. Between 35 and 48 percent of students served under*IDEA*, Part B, in each of grades 3 through 8 and high school participated in a*regular assessment based on grade-level achievement standards without accommodations*in math. Nearly all students in each of grades 3 through 8 and high school who participated in some type of alternate assessment in math in school year 2015–16, took an*alternate assessment based on alternate achievement standards*(Exhibit 35).In school year 2015–16, between 38.3 and 47.1 percent of students served under

*IDEA*, Part B, in each of grades 3 through 8 and high school participated in a*regular assessment based on grade-level achievement standards with accommodations*in reading. Between 38 and 48.8 percent of students served under*IDEA*, Part B, in each of grades 3 through 8 and high school participated in a*regular assessment based on grade-level achievement standards without accommodations*in reading. Nearly all students in each of grades 3 through 8 and high school who participated in some type of alternate assessment in reading in school year 2015–16 took an*alternate assessment based on alternate achievement standards*(Exhibit 36).Of the 59 jurisdictions (i.e., 49 states, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, BIE schools, the four outlying areas, and the three freely associated states) for which non-suppressed data were available for school year 2015–16, between 43 and 49 administered a

*regular assessment based on grade-level achievement standards*in math to some students served under*IDEA*, Part B, in each of grades 3 through 8 and high school. The median percentages of these students who were found to be proficient with these math tests ranged from 7.4 percent to 24.8 percent. No jurisdiction administered an*alternate assessment based on grade-level achievement standards*for math to any students served under*IDEA*, Part B, in each of grades 3 through 8 and high school. Hence, medians could not be calculated. No jurisdiction administered an*alternate assessment based on modified achievement standards*for math to any students served under*IDEA*, Part B, in each of grades 3 through 8 and high school. Hence, medians could not be calculated. Non-suppressed data were available for between 46 and 51 jurisdictions that administered an*alternate assessment based on alternate achievement standards*for math to some students served under*IDEA*, Part B, in each of grades 3 through 8 and high school. The median percentages of these students who were found to be proficient with these math tests ranged from 37.7 percent to 44.5 percent (Exhibit 37).Of the 59 jurisdictions (i.e., 49 states, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, BIE schools, the four outlying areas, and the three freely associated states) for which non-suppressed data were available for school year 2015–16, between 43 and 49 administered a

*regular assessment based on grade-level achievement standards*in reading to some students served under*IDEA*, Part B, in each of grades 3 through 8 and high school. The median percentages of these students who were found to be proficient with these reading tests ranged from 11.1 percent to 20.7 percent. Non- suppressed data were available for only one jurisdiction that administered an*alternate assessment based on grade-level achievement standards*for reading to some students served under*IDEA*, Part B, in each of grades 3 through 8, and for no jurisdictions in high school. Hence, medians could not be calculated. No jurisdiction administered an*alternate assessment based on modified achievement standards*for reading to any students served under*IDEA*, Part B, in each of grades 3 through 8 and high school. Hence, medians could not be calculated. Non- suppressed data were available for between 48 and 50 jurisdictions that administered an*alternate assessment based on alternate achievement standards*for reading to some students served under*IDEA*, Part B, in each of grades 3 through 8 and high school. The median percentages of students served under*IDEA*, Part B, in each grade who were found to be proficient with these reading tests ranged from 39.5 percent to 51 percent (Exhibit 38).Of the seven exit reason categories,

*graduated with a regular high school diploma*accounted for the largest percentage of students ages 14 through 21 who exited special education in 2015–16 (specifically, 269,246, or 44.8 percent, of the 600,427 such students). This was followed by*moved, known to be continuing*in education (26.5 percent) and*dropped out*(11.2 percent) (Exhibit 39).In 2015–16, a total of 69.9 percent of the students ages 14 through 21 who exited

*IDEA*, Part B, and school*graduated with a regular high school diploma*; an additional 17.5 percent*dropped out*. From 2006–07 through 2014–15, the percentage of students who exited special education and school by having*graduated with a regular high school diploma*increased from 56 percent to 69.9 percent and remained at 69.9 percent in 2015–16. From 2006–07 through 2015–16, the percentage of students who exited special education and school by having*dropped out*decreased from 25.7 percent to 17.5 percent (Exhibit 40).From 2006–07 through 2015–16, the graduation percentage increased for students who exited

*IDEA*, Part B, and school in all disability categories except*deaf-blindness,*which accounted for fewer than 200 students in each year. The graduation percentage increased by at least 10 percentage points for each disability category except*multiple disabilitie*s (2.2 percentage points),*orthopedic impairment*(4.3 percentage points),*intellectual disability*(4.6 percentage points), and*traumatic brain injury*(8.3 percentage points). In 2006–07, the disability category with the largest graduation percentage was*deaf-blindness*. In every year from 2007–08 through 2014–15, the disability category of*visual impairment*was associated with the largest graduation percentage. In 2015–16, the disability category of*speech or language impairment*was associated with the largest graduation percentage. The students reported under the category of*intellectual disability*had the smallest graduation percentages from 2006–07 through 2015–16 (Exhibit 41).From 2006–07 through 2015–16, the dropout percentage decreased for students who exited

*IDEA*, Part B, and school in all disability categories except*deaf-blindness*, which accounted for fewer than 200 students in each year. The dropout percentage decreases were 10 percentage points or less for each disability category. In each year from 2006–07 through 2015–16, a larger percentage of the students reported under the category of*emotional disturbance*exited special education and school by dropping out. In fact, in each year, the dropout percentage was no less than 30 percent, which was substantially larger than the dropout percentage for any other disability category (Exhibit 42).In 2015, a total of 329,701, or 93.2 percent, of the 353,801 FTE

*special education teachers*who provided special education and related services for students ages 6 through 21 under*IDEA*, Part B, were highly qualified (Exhibit 43).In 2015, a total of 407,090, or 94 percent, of the 433,032 FTE

*special education paraprofessionals*who provided special education and related services for students ages 6 through 21 under*IDEA*, Part B, were qualified (Exhibit 44).

## Children and Students Ages 3 Through 21 Served Under *IDEA*, Part B

In 2015, a total of 96.6 percent of all FTE personnel who were employed to provide related services for children and students ages 3 through 21 served under

*IDEA*, Part B, were fully certified. More than 95 percent of FTE related services personnel in 8 of the 11 categories were fully certified. The three exceptions were*physical therapists*(93.2 percent),*occupational therapists*(91.1 percent), and*interpreters*(88.2 percent) (Exhibit 45).During the 2015–16 school year, 8,196 children and students ages 3 through 21 served under

*IDEA*, Part B, in the jurisdictions for which data were available experienced a*unilateral removal to an interim alternative educational setting by school personnel (not the IEP team) for drugs, weapons, or serious bodily injury*. Given that 6,436,509 children and students ages 3 through 21 were served under Part B in 2015, in the states for which data were available, this type of action occurred with only 13 children and students for every 10,000 children and students who were served under Part B in 2015. Only 498 children and students ages 3 through 21 served under*IDEA*, Part B, or 1 for every 10,000 children and students served in 2015, in the jurisdictions for which data were available experienced a*removal to an interim alternative educational setting based on a hearing officer finding that there is substantial likelihood of injury to the child or others*in school year 2015–16. There were 48,626 children and students ages 3 through 21 served under*IDEA*, Part B, or 75 for every 10,000 children and students served in 2015, in the jurisdictions for which data were available who received*out-of-school suspensions or expulsions*for more than 10 cumulative days in school year 2015–16. There were 23,010 children and students ages 3 through 21 served under*IDEA*, Part B, or 36 for every 10,000 children and students served in 2015, in the jurisdictions for which data were available who received*in- school suspensions*for more than 10 cumulative days in school year 2015–16 (Exhibit 46).For every 10,000 children and students ages 3 through 21 served under

*IDEA*, Part B, reported under the category of*emotional disturbance*in 2015, there were 42 children and students removed unilaterally to an interim alternative educational setting by school personnel for offenses involving drugs, weapons, or serious bodily injury during school year 2015–16. The ratio for the children and students reported under each of the other disability categories was 20 or less per 10,000 children and students served. Without regard for disability category, for every 10,000 children and students ages 3 through 21 served under*IDEA*, Part B, in 2015, no more than 4 children and students were removed by a hearing officer for likely injury during school year 2015–16. For every 10,000 children and students ages 3 through 21 served under*IDEA*, Part B, reported under the category of*emotional disturbance*in 2015, there were 365 children and students who received*out-of-school suspensions or expulsions*for more than 10 cumulative days during school year 2015–16. The ratio for the children and students reported under each of the other disability categories was 137 or less per 10,000 children and students. For every 10,000 children and students ages 3 through 21 served under*IDEA*, Part B, reported under the category of*emotional disturbance*in 2015, there were 114 children and students who received*in-school suspensions*for more than 10 cumulative days during school year 2015–16. The ratio for the children and students reported under each of the other disability categories was 68 or less per 10,000 children and students (Exhibit 47).During 2015–16, a total of 5,351

*written, signed complaints*were received through the dispute resolution process for children and students ages 3 through 21 served under*IDEA*, Part B. A report was issued for 3,329 (62.2 percent) of the complaints, while 1,874 (35.0 percent) of the complaints were withdrawn or dismissed. A total of 148 (2.8 percent) of the complaints that were received during the 2015–16 reporting period were pending or unresolved by the end of the period (Exhibit 48).A total of 19,727

*due process complaints*were received during 2015–16 through the dispute resolution process for children and students served under*IDEA*, Part B. For 11,771 (59.7 percent) of the*due process complaints*received during the 2015–16 reporting period, a resolution was achieved without a hearing. For 1,990 (10.1 percent) of the*due process complaints*received, a hearing was conducted, and a written legal decision was issued. For 5,966 (30.2 percent) of the*due process complaints*received, a resolution was still pending at the end of the reporting period (Exhibit 49).During 2015–16, a total of 9,025

*mediation requests*were received through the dispute resolution process for children and students served under*IDEA*, Part B. For 3,876 (42.9 percent) of the*mediation requests*received, a mediation related to a*due process complaint*was conducted. For 2,946 (32.6 percent) of the*mediation requests*received, a mediation that was not related to a*due process complaint*was conducted. For 482 requests (5.3 percent), a mediation session was still pending as of the end of the 2015–16 reporting period. The remaining 1,721*mediation requests*(19.1 percent) were withdrawn or otherwise not to be held by the end of the reporting period (Exhibit 50).A total of 95,125, or 1.4 percent, of the 6,630,290 children and students ages 3 through 21 served under Part B in 2016 by the 47 states for which data were available, the District of Columbia, BIE schools, Puerto Rico, the four outlying areas, and the three freely associated states received coordinated early intervening services (CEIS) in school year(s) 2013–14, 2014– 15, or 2015–16, prior to being served under Part B (Exhibit 51).