Fiscal Year 2007 Budget Summary February 6, 2006
Section III. Programs Proposed for Elimination
The 2007 request continues the practice of the Bush Administrationalso consistent with previous administrations over the past 25 yearsof proposing to eliminate or consolidate funding for programs that have achieved their original purpose, that duplicate other programs, that may be carried out with flexible State formula grant funds, or that involve activities that are better or more appropriately supported through State, local, or private resources. Congress agreed to several of the Administration's recommended terminations last year, eliminating 5 programs totaling $25.6 million.
The government-wide Program Assessment Rating Tool, or PART, helps focus funding on Department of Education programs that generate positive results for students and that meet strong accountability standards. For 2007, PART findings were used to redirect funds from ineffective programs to more effective activities, as well as to identify reforms to help address program weaknesses.
The following table shows the programs proposed for elimination in the President's 2007 budget request. Termination of these 42 programs frees up almost $3.5 billionbased on 2006 levelsfor reallocation to more effective, higher-priority activities. Following the table is a brief summary of each program and the rationale for its elimination.
Supports intensive workshops for teachers and students in the areas of history and civics. Eliminating funding for the program is consistent with Administration policy of terminating small categorical programs with limited impact in order to fund higher priorities. Academies for American history and civics can be funded under other authorities, such as the Teaching American History and the Teacher Quality State Grants programs.
Supports programs to reduce alcohol abuse in secondary schools. These programs may be funded through other Safe and Drug-Free Schools and Communities National Programs and State Grants for Innovative Programs.
Makes non-competitive awards to VSA arts and the John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts as well as competitive awards for national demonstrations and Federal leadership activities to encourage the integration of the arts into the school curriculum. Eliminating funding for the program is consistent with Administration policy of terminating small categorical programs with limited impact in order to fund higher priorities. Arts education programs may be funded under other authorities.
Provides financial assistance, through a non-competitive award to the US Olympic Committtee, to athletes who are training at the United States Olympic Education Center or one of the United States Olympic Training centers and who are pursuing a postsecondary education. Athletes can receive grant, work-study, and loan assistance through the Department's postsecondary student aid programs. Rated Results Not Demonstrated by the PART, due to lack of performance data and program design deficiencies, including its duplication of other Federal student aid programs.
Promotes academic excellence and achievement by awarding merit-based scholarships to high school students, through formula grants to State educational agencies, who have demonstrated outstanding academic achievement and who show promise of continued academic excellence. This program duplicates existing Federal student financial assistance programs, as well as State, local and private efforts that provide merit-based resources for postsecondary education. Rated Results Not Demonstrated by the PART due to lack of performance data and program design deficiencies.
Provides a single non-competitive award to the Center for Civic Education to conduct We the People, a program to improve the quality of civics and government education. Also makes non-competitive and competitive awards for the Cooperative Education Exchange, a program to improve civic and economic education through exchange programs. Request is consistent with the Administration's policy of terminating small categorical programs that have limited impact, and for which there is little or no evidence of effectiveness, to fund higher priority programs.
Non-competitive award to Close Up Foundation supports fellowships to low-income students and teachers participating in Close Up visits to Washington, DC and other activities. Peer organizations provide scholarships to participants without Federal assistance, and the organization's successful private fundraising indicates that there is no need for the program.
This program has largely duplicated activities that are readily carried out under the Title I Grants to LEAs program. In the 2000-01 school year, about 30,000 Title I schools (62 percent) were implementing research-based reform models and, beginning with 2002, the NCLB Act made statutory changes to further encourage schools to carry out the types of whole-school reforms supported by the Comprehensive School Reform program. For example, comprehensive reform is encouraged as part of school improvement efforts undertaken by Title I schools that do not make adequate yearly progress toward State standards for at least 2 consecutive years. Congress phased out most of the program in 2006. The 2007 request would complete the process.
Funds competitive grants for technical assistance and professional development activities for faculty and administrators in institutions of higher education in order to improve the quality of education for students with disabilities. This program has achieved its primary goal of funding model demonstration projects. New projects can and do receive funding under FIPSE.
This program provides funding to States and school districts to support the integration of educational technology into classroom instruction, technology deployment, and a host of other activities designed to utilize technology to improve instruction and student learning. Schools today offer a greater level of technology infrastructure than just a few years ago, and there is no longer a significant need for a State formula grant program targeted specifically on (and limited to) the effective integration of technology into schools and classrooms. Districts seeking funds to integrate technology into teaching and learning can use other Federal program funds such as Improving Teacher Quality State Grants and Title I Grants to Local Educational Agencies. The Congress eliminated much of the program in 2006; the request would complete the process.
Elementary school and secondary school counseling may be funded through other larger and more flexible Federal programs, such as ESEA Title V-A State Grants for Innovative Programs.
This program aims to improve educational opportunities for children and their parents in low-income areas by integrating early childhood education, adult education, and parenting education into "family literacy" programs. However, three separate national evaluations of the program reached the same conclusion: children and adults participating in Even Start generally made gains in literacy skills, but these gains were not significantly greater than those of non-participants. Also, the program received an Ineffective PART rating. Other high priority programs such as Reading First and Early Reading First are better structured to implement proven research and to achieve the President's literacy goals. The Congress eliminated much of the program in 2006; the 2007 request would complete the process.
Supports a grant to a single national non-profit educational organization to promote economic and financial literacy for K-12 students. Elimination is consistent with Administration policy of terminating small categorical programs with limited impact in order to fund higher priorities. Economic Education activities may be funded under other authorities such as State Grants for Innovative Programs.
Supports culturally based educational activities, internships, apprenticeship programs and exchanges for Alaska Natives, Native Hawaiians, children and families of Massachusetts, and (as amended by Public Law 109-149) any federally recognized Indian tribe in Mississippi. Elimination is consistent with Administration policy of terminating small categorical programs with limited impact in order to fund higher priorities.
Reimburses institutional revolving funds for borrowers whose loan repayments are canceled in exchange for undertaking public service employment, such as teaching in Head Start programs, full-time law enforcement, or nursing. These reimbursements are no longer needed as the Administration will work with Congress to phase out the Perkins Loan program, which is inefficient and duplicative of other, larger, Federal student loan programs.
Competitive grants provide services to children and their families to enhance young children's development so that they become ready for school. The request is consistent with the Administration's effort to increase resources for high-priority programs by eliminating small, narrow categorical programs that duplicate other programs, have limited impact, or for which there is little or no evidence of effect. The budget request includes funding for other, larger programs that support early childhood education and development.
Provides competitive grants to States and partnerships to support early college preparation and awareness activities at the State and local levels to ensure low-income elementary and secondary school students are prepared for and pursue postsecondary education. GEAR UP received an Adequate PART rating because it employs a number of strategies that other studies have found to be effective, but no data are available to measure progress toward long-term program goals. The proposed new High School Reform initiative would provide a more comprehensive approach to improving high school education and increasing student achievement, especially the achievement of those most at-risk of educational failure and dropping out.
Primarily supports research and demonstration grants that could be funded as part of research conducted by the Department's Institute of Education Sciences. Current grants are not structured to assess program effectiveness and identify successful intervention strategies that could have broad national impact.
Program has accomplished its objective of stimulating all States to establish need-based postsecondary student grant programs, and Federal incentives for such aid are no longer required. State grant levels have expanded greatly over the years, and most States significantly exceed the statutory matching requirements. State matching funds in academic year 1999-2000, for example, totaled nearly $1 billion or more than $950 million over the level generated by a dollar-for-dollar match.
Makes competitive grants to increase student access to mental health care by linking school systems with the mental health system. The request is consistent with the Administration's effort to increase resources for high-priority programs by eliminating small, narrow categorical programs that duplicate other programs, have limited impact, or for which there is little or no evidence of effect.
This program makes competitive awards to support rehabilitation services to migratory workers with disabilities, duplicating activities that may be funded through the VR State Grants program.
Supports a nationwide nonprofit educational organization that promotes K-16 teacher training programs in the effective teaching of writing. States may support such activities through flexible programs like Improving Teacher Quality State Grants. Rated Results Not Demonstrated by the PART review due to lack of reliable performance or evaluation data on the effectiveness of supported interventions.
Parent education and family involvement activities are required and funded under other ESEA programs, such as Title I Grants to Local Educational Agencies, and are a specifically authorized use of funds under ESEA Title V-A State Grants for Innovative Programs. The PART review of this program rated it Results Not Demonstrated, partly because of its unclear statutory purposes.
PWI administers a grant competition for projects to help individuals with disabilities obtain employment in the competitive labor market. VR State Grants serves the same target populations and may provide the same services. Rated Adequate by the PART process but also determined to be duplicative of the much larger VR State Grants program. In addition, data reliability problems undermine accurate assessment of program performance.
Supports competitive grants to nonprofit telecommunications entities to carry out programs to improve teaching in core curriculum areas, and to develop, produce, and distribute innovative educational and instructional video programming. State Grants for Innovative Programs and Improving Teacher Quality State grants provide ample resources for the types of activities supported by this program.
Supports competitively awarded projects that provide recreation and related activities for individuals with disabilities to aid in their employment, mobility, independence, socialization, and community integration. The program has limited impact, and such activities are more appropriately financed by State and local agencies and the private sector.
Provides formula grants to States to help create and maintain drug-free, safe, and orderly environments for learning in and around schools. The program has not demonstrated effectiveness, and grant funds are spread too thinly to support quality interventions. The Administration proposes to redirect some of the program's funds to provide an increase for Safe and Drug-Free Schools National Programs, which is better structured to support quality interventions, and to permit grantees and independent evaluators to measure progress, hold projects accountable, and determine which interventions are most effective. A PART analysis rated this program as Ineffective.
Significantly higher funding for dropout prevention and re-entry programs available through Title I Grants to LEAs, Title I Migrant State Grants, and State Grants for Innovative Programs makes this program unnecessary. Also, at the 2007 request level, States are required to reserve approximately $110 million from their Title I allocation for purposes of helping students stay in school and make the transition to public schools from local corrections facilities and community day programs.
Program supports recruiting, training, and retaining principals and assistant principalsactivities that are specifically authorized under other, much larger programs such as Improving Teacher Quality State Grants and State Grants for Innovative Programs. The request is consistent with the Administration's policy of terminating small categorical programs that have limited impact.
A separate program is not needed for the purpose of creating smaller learning communities. In the past 5 years, funds available from this program and from private sources have met the demand. Under the most recent competition, conducted in 2005, school districts in two States received about half of the total funds available for grants, and a third of applicants and grantees had received previous grants. Many of the eligible schools have not chosen to create smaller learning communities because of the lack of compelling evidence on the effectiveness of the smaller learning communities strategy in strengthening high school education and raising achievement. The remaining need for assistance in creating smaller learning communities can be adequately supported with formula grant funds from Title I Grants to Local Educational Agencies or State Grants for Innovative Programsthe latter of which specifically authorizes the creation of smaller learning communities. Also, the President's proposed new High School Reform initiative will give educators greater flexibility to design and implement approaches for improving the achievement of high-school students. The PART rated this program Results Not Demonstrated.
Supports competitive grants for distance education projects to improve instruction in a variety of curricular areas. Programs such as State Grants for Innovative Programs and Improving Teacher Quality State grants provide ample resources for these activities.
Formula grants to State correctional agencies assist and encourage incarcerated youth to acquire functional literacy skills and life and job skills. Request is consistent with the Administration's effort to eliminate small programs that have only indirect or limited effect on improving student outcomes.
This formula grant program has accomplished its goal of developing collaborative programs with appropriate public and private nonprofit organizations to provide supported employment services for individuals with the most significant disabilities. Supported employment services are also provided by the VR State Grants program.
Program provides competitive grants to States and partnerships to improve recruitment, preparation, licensure, and support for teachers by providing incentives, encouraging reforms, and leveraging local and State resources to ensure that current and future teachers have the necessary teaching skills and academic content knowledge to teach effectively. All of the activities allowable under the Teacher Quality Enhancement program can be carried out under other existing Federal programs. Rated Results Not Demonstrated by the PART process due to lack of performance data and program design deficiencies.
A separate State grant program to support State efforts to develop structural links between secondary and postsecondary institutions that integrate academic and vocational education is unnecessary. The Administration's proposed $1.5 billion High School Reform initiative will give educators greater flexibility to design and implement programs that best meet the needs to their students. States could use funds to support vocational education, mentoring and counseling programs, partnerships between high schools and colleges, or other approaches.
Funds a non-competitive award to provide minority, low-income or disadvantaged college students with the information, preparation, and financial assistance needed to gain access to and complete law school study. Disadvantaged individuals can receive assistance through the Department's student financial assistance programs.
Provides competitive grants to colleges to encourage disadvantaged youth to graduate from high school and enroll in a postsecondary education program. Talent Search received a Moderately Effective rating in 2005 due to demonstrated success in achieving its goals. However, the proposed new High School Reform initiative would provide a more comprehensive approach to improving high school education and increasing student achievement, especially the achievement of those most at-risk of educational failure and dropping out.
Provides competitive grants to colleges to support intensive academic instruction for disadvantaged high school students to generate the skills and motivation needed to pursue and complete a postsecondary education. Upward Bound Math/Science focuses specifically on preparing students for careers in mathematics and the sciences. The proposed new High School Reform initiative would provide a more comprehensive approach to improving high school education and increasing student achievement, especially the achievement of those most at-risk of educational failure and dropping out. Upward Bound received an Ineffective PART rating due to a lack of data on key performance measures and evaluation results that found the program has limited overall impact because services are not sufficiently well targeted to higher-risk students. Veterans currently served under Upward Bound would continue to receive services under TRIO's Educational Opportunity Centers program.
Provides competitive grants to non-profit educational organizations to establish facilities that house, display, and interpret artifacts relating to the history of the Underground Railroad, as well as to make the interpretive efforts available to institutions of higher education. The program has largely achieved its original purpose.
The program's activities, which include research, assessment, evaluation, dissemination, and technical assistance, would be addressed as part of the Administration's High School Reform initiative for ensuring that secondary students improve their academic achievement and graduation rates.
Funds would be redirected to support a new comprehensive strategy for improving the effectiveness of Federal investments at the high school level. The High School Reform initiative will give educators greater flexibility (coupled with enhanced accountability) to design and implement programs that best meet the needs of their students. States could use funds to support vocational education, mentoring and counseling programs, partnerships between high schools and colleges, or other approaches.
Activities promoting educational equity for girls and women may be supported through larger, more flexible programs like ESEA Title V-A State Grants for Innovative Programs.
Institute of Education Sciences Departmental Management
For further information contact the ED Budget Service.
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