A r c h i v e d I n f o r m a t i o n
Since 1980, the proportion of sophomores participating in academic clubs has increased nearly 5 percentage points. However, participation in other extracurricular activities has decreased. There has been a significant decline in the percent of students participating in hobby clubs and musical activities. Athletics remains the most popular activity, with more than half of students participating in both 1980 and 1990.
Percent of sophomores who participate in selected school-sponsored extracurricular activities: 1980 and 1990
Change in participation of high school sophomores in school-sponsored extracurricular activities: 1980 and 1990
After School Activities
Although there appears to be a negative relationship between television watching and performance on achievement tests, other variables such as socioeconomic characteristics are also negatively related with achievement. Higher SES students were less likely to watch five or more hours of TV on school nights and more likely to have high test scores than low SES students.
Percent of sophomores who say they engage in various activities at least once or twice a week: 1980 and 1990
Percent of high school sophomores who watch more than 5 hours of television on school nights, by test performance and socioeconomic status: 1990
Teenagers and young adults are more likely to participate in many types of sporting activities than other age groups. Compared with 12- to 17-year-olds, 18- to 24-year-olds are less likely to participate in most organized group sports, bicycle riding, and swimming, but more likely to participate in aerobics, exercise walking, or exercising with equipment.
Percent of population 7 years old and over participating in sports activities in the past year, by age: 1986 to 1991
Participation in sports activites, by age: 1991
Employment of 16- and 17-Year-Old Students
The employment rate of 16- and 17-year-old male students showed some changes during the 1970 to 1991 period, fluctuating with the overall economy. The employment rate of female students was higher in 1991 than in 1970, but exhibited some of the same fluctuations as were seen in the male rate. Between 1989 and 1991, there was a decline in the employment rates for 16- and 17-year-olds, especially among black youth. Employment rates for whites were three times higher than those for blacks in 1991. Unemployment rates for black students were correspondingly higher than rates for white students.
Employment status of 16- and 17-year-olds enrolled in school, by sex and race: 1970 to 1991
Employment rate of 16- and 17-year-olds enrolled in school, by sex and race: 1970 to 1991
Spending Patterns of High School Seniors
In 1991, 40 percent of working high school seniors said that they spent "most" or "all or almost all" of their earnings on personal items such as clothing, records, and recreation. Black students contributed more of their earnings to meet family expenses than did white students. About 10 percent of those planning to attend a 4- year college were saving "most" or "all or almost all" of their money for education.
Spending patterns of employed high school seniors, by sex, race, and college plans: 1981, 1990, and 1991
Percent of employed high school seniors spending "most" or "almost all" or "all" of their earnings on selected expenses, by race and college plans: 1991
Spending of Young Adults
As might be expected with their lower incomes, urban households headed by young adults under 25 spent less than the average household in almost every category in 1990. One exception: households headed by young adults spent more on education. Young adults spent a higher proportion of their money on food, apparel and services, transportation, and education than others. By contrast, they spent a lower percentage of their funds on housing, health care, insurance, and pensions than the average household.
Average annual expenditures of urban households, by age of head: 1984, 1987, 1989, and 1990
Average annual expenditures of urban households, by age of head: 1990
SCHOOL : Outcomes