A r c h i v e d  I n f o r m a t i o n

Family Income

Indicator 14.

Median Family Income

In contrast to the sizeable increase in median family income in the 1950s and 1960s, family income in the 1970s showed almost no gains. After posting modest increases during the mid-1980s, incomes for all families leveled off during the late 1980s and then declined between 1989 and 1991. However, income in black households was much less than in white households.

Median family income, by race/ethnicity of head of household: 1950 to 1991

Median family income, by race/ethnicity: 1950 to 1991


Indicator 15.

Total Family Income

In 1991, 46 percent of children under 18 in female-headed household lived in families with an income under $10,000. In contrast, about 69 percent of children in married-couple families lived in families with an income of $30,000 or more while only 12 percent of children in female-headed households lived in households with incomes at that level. Thirty-seven percent of children in married-couple families had parents with an income of $50,000 or more.

Number and percent of related children, by type of family and family income: 1991

Percent of related children under 18 years old, by type of family and family income: 1991


Indicator 16.

Parents' Employment

The number and percentage of married, working women with children under 18 rose significantly between 1975 and 1991. The proportion of married, working mothers in two-parent families with children rose from 41 percent in 1975 to 64 percent in 1991. This increase in women working outside the home caused a significant transformation of families with children. The predominant pattern in 1992 was for both parents to work outside the home, in contrast with 1975 when the most common pattern was for fathers only to be employed.

Employment status of parents with own children under 18 years old, by type of family: 1975 to 1991

Employment status of married-couple families with own children under 18 years old: 1975 to 1991


Indicator 17.

Mothers' Employment

The labor force participation rate of married women with children under 6 years old has been rising since 1950. Between 1970 and 1991, the participation rate for these women rose from 30 percent to 60 percent. A higher proportion of married women with older children are in the labor force than of those with children under 6. Nearly three-quarters of married women with children between 6 and 17 were either employed or looking for work in 1991.

Employment status of married, separated, and divorced women with children under 18 years old, by age of children: 1950 to 1991

Labor force participation rate for married women with children, by age of children: 1950 to 1991


Indicator 18.

Median Income

The median income for full-time workers 20 to 24 years old dropped between 1970 and 1991 (after adjustment for inflation). In contrast to the significant income declines among young males, the median income for all men remained relatively stable during the 1970 to 1990 period, and the income for all women rose by 11 percent. During this period of decline, the income of women 20 to 24 years old fell at a slower rate than that of men, so that the gap between men's and women's incomes narrowed to 7 percent in 1991. The gap between all men's and women's incomes remained much larger than for younger age groups, with all men's salaries averaging 43 percent higher than those for women in 1991.

Median income of full-time, year-round workers, by sex and age: 1955 to 1991

Median income of full-time, year-round workers, by sex and age: 1955 to 1991


Indicator 19.

Poverty

The proportion of children living in poverty declined significantly during the 1960s but rose after 1970. In 1991, about 21 percent of all children and 56 percent of children in female-headed families (with no husband present) lived in poverty. Poverty rates were relatively high for minority children. About 46 percent of all black children and 40 percent of Hispanic children lived in poverty in 1991. The proportion of poor children coming from female-headed households has risen dramatically, from 24 percent in 1960 to 59 percent in 1991 for all children, and from 29 percent to 83 percent for black children.

Number and percent of children under 18 years old living in poverty, by family status and race/ethnicity of family householder: 1960 to 1991

Percent of children under 18 years old living in poverty, by type of family: 1960 to 1991


Indicator 20.

Federal Aid to Families

During the 1960s, the number and percentage of children receiving AFDC benefits rose dramatically as federal programs expanded. Since 1975, the number and proportion of children receiving AFDC benefits flucuated within a relatively narrow range. At the same time, the average value in constant dollars of AFDC monthly payments has declined from $182 per recipient in 1975 to $135 per recipient in 1991.

Persons receiving Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) and federal income tax exemptions per dependent: 1950 to 1991

Percent of children under 18 years old receiving AFDC payments: 1950 to 1990


Indicator 21.

Child Support

The extent to which fathers were meeting their obligations to pay child support changed little between 1978 and 1989. In 1989, about half of those women who were awarded child support payments received their full entitlement that year. Less than one-fourth received partial payment, and one-fourth received no payment.

Women receiving court-ordered child support payments from absent fathers: 1978 to 1989

Women receiving court-ordered child support from absent fathers, by payment status: 1978 to 1989


Indicator 22.

College Costs

College tuition, room, and board charges (after adjustment for inflation) declined slightly during the late 1970s. However, since 1980-81, student charges have risen substantially, particularly at private 4-year colleges. After adjusting for inflation, charges for tuition, room, and board rose by 44 percent at public 4-year colleges and 64 percent at private colleges between 1980-81 and 1992-93. Charges at public 4-year colleges remained relatively steady compared to family income, showing some decline between 1959-60 and 1979-80 and rising since then. Total college charges for private 4-year college students as a proportion of family income were much higher in 1992-93 than in the 1960s and 1970s, reflecting sharp increases since 1980-81.

Average charges for full-time undergraduate students, by type and control of college: 1959-60 to 1992-93

Total tuition, room, and board charges at public and private 4-year colleges: 1959-60 to 1992-93

Demographics and Family Composition Table of Contents SCHOOL : Description


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