A r c h i v e d I n f o r m a t i o n
From 1950 to 1970, school enrollment rates rose significantly among teenagers 14 to 17 years old. Since 1970, changes in enrollment rates for this group generally have been small. Enrollment rates for older age groups rose rapidly during the 1960s, but leveled off during the 1970s. Enrollment rates for 18- to 21-year-olds increased after 1979, while enrollment rates for 22-to 24-year olds increased after 1985.
Percent of population 14 to 29 years old enrolled in school, by age: October 1950 to October 1991
Percent of population enrolled in school, by age: October 1950 to October 1991
Reported High School Program
More 17-year-olds, especially blacks and Hispanics, reported being in college preparatory or academic programs in 1990 than in 1982. During the same period, the proportion in vocational education declined from 12 percent to 9 percent. The proportion in general programs fell from 44 percent to 37 percent.
Percent of 17-year-olds who reported being in various high school programs: 1982, 1986, and 1990
Percent of 17-year-olds who reported being in various high school programs: 1982 and 1990
Race of Students
Between 1975 and 1991, the proportion of white students declined at both the elementary/secondary and college levels. After increasing between 1975 and 1985, the proportion of blacks in elementary schools remained stable through 1991. The proportion of college students who are black has not changed since 1975. Since 1975, the proportion of Hispanic students grew at the elementary/secondary level, but has not increased at the college level in recent years.
Percent of students 3 to 34 years old, by race/ethnicity and level of enrollment: Fall 1960 to fall 1991
Percent of students who are black or Hispanic, by level of enrollment: Fall 1960 to fall 1991
Young adults have completed more and more years of education over the past decades, but increases in educational attainment since 1975 have been small. The proportion of blacks completing high school has risen significantly in recent years. The proportion of 25- to 29-year-old blacks who had not completed high school fell from 29 percent in 1975 to 18 percent in 1991. Hispanics complete less school than other groups and only 9 percent completed 4 or more years of college in 1991, as compared with 25 percent for whites.
Percent of 25- to 29-year-olds completing high school and college, by age and race/ethnicity: 1940 to 1991
Years of school completed by 25- to 29-year-olds: 1940 to 1991
The proportion of all 16 to 24 year olds who were dropouts fell slightly between 1980 and 1991. The dropout rate for blacks fell more rapidly, from 19 percent in 1980 to 14 percent in 1991. The Hispanic dropout rate has not declined and remains by far the highest at 35 percent.
Percent of high school dropouts among persons 16 to 24 years old, by sex and race/ethnicity: October 1967 to October 1991
Percent of persons 16 to 24 years old who are dropouts, by sex and race/ethnicity: October 1967 to October 1991
Pupil/Teacher Ratios and Expenditures per Student
Between 1955 and 1988, the pupil/teacher ratio declined, from 27 to 17. Partially as a result of the lower pupil/teacher ratio, per pupil expenditures in public elementary and secondary schools have increased substantially. Between 1980-81 and 1990-91, expenditures per student (after adjustment for inflation) rose 36 percent, but remained constant from 1990-91 to 1992-93.
Pupil/teacher ratios and expenditures per student in public elementary and secondary schools: 1955-56 to 1992-93
Pupil/teacher ratios and expenditures per student in average daily attendance in public elementary and secondary schools: 1955-56 to 1992-93
Computer Use by Students
More than half of all elementary school children used computers at school in October 1989. The computer usage rate was 39 percent for high school students and undergraduate students.
Sizable percentages of students used computers at home, although fewer actually used the computers for schoolwork. About 18 percent of elementary school children used computers at home and about 6 percent used them for schoolwork. Students at the high school and undergraduate levels were about twice as likely as the elementary school children to use computers at home for schoolwork, although they were less likely to use computers at school. Students in higher income families were more likely to use computers at home and to use them for schoolwork than students from lower income families. This last pattern was particularly distinct for elementary and high school students.
Student use of computers, by level of instruction and household income: October 1989
Percent of students using a computer at school and at home: October 1989
SCHOOL : Outcomes