At the option of the state and local education agencies, the Eisenhower Professional Development program can support professional development in all the core academic subjects. However, to ensure the continuity of professional development that was supported by the program's predecessor in math and science, the state and local shares of the first $250 million in appropriated funds must be devoted to professional development in these subjects.
State and local professional development activities must be guided by plans for a long-term strategy for providing sustained and intensive, high-quality professional development that is tied to challenging content standards and is needed to improve teaching and learning. Of the Title II funds going to the states, 84 percent must be allocated as grants to LEAs and 16 percent to the state agency for higher education, which administers grants to institutions of higher education and non-profit organizations. One-half of this grant money is allocated on the basis of the LEAs Title I allocation for the previous year; the remaining half is allocated on the basis of total number of students, including private school students who reside in each state. Subgrants to LEAs are based on similar criteria for each LEA in the state.
The amount of funds per student that an LEA provides for the benefit of private school teachers and students must be equal to the amount of funds per student that benefit the LEA's public school teachers and students, taking into account the number and educational needs of those teachers and students. A program is designed, in consultation between public and private school officials, that meets the needs of the private school teachers and students. This program can be different from the public school program if the needs of the students are different. Timely and meaningful consultation requires that public and private school officials discuss the needs of the students and the subsequent professional development needs of the teachers before any decision is made that could adversely affect the ability of private school teachers to fully participate in the benefits of Title II. As for public school teachers, the professional development program designed for the teachers of private school children must be of high quality, sustained, and intensive.
When appropriations for State and Local Programs for School Technology Resources are less than $62 million, the law authorizes a discretionary grant program, National Challenge Grants for Technology in Education. This is a unique program designed to stimulate effective applications of new learning technologies in communities across the country. Applications are submitted by an LEA on behalf of a consortium of partners (one of which must be an LEA with a high percentage or number of children living below the poverty line) with appropriate resources to address the needs identified in the community. State education agencies, colleges and universities, telecommunications firms and entertainment producers, software developers and hardware manufacturers, libraries and museum, community centers and local businesses, and private schools and groups of private schools may all be consortium members using information technologies to create new learning communities.
Private schools can participate in two ways. First, private schools are eligible to participate in a consortium applying through an LEA for a Challenge Grant. In doing so, the private school (or group of private schools) assumes the role of partner in the consortium. Second, if private schools are not participants in the consortium, private school students and teachers must receive equitable benefits from the federal portion of the funds, as providing under Title XIV. Private school officials must be provided the opportunity, prior to the design of the program, to provide input regarding the needs of private school students to be served by the project. For further information on Challenge Grants for Technology in Education, contact the Office of Non-Public Education, 600 Independence Avenue, SW, Washington, D.C. 20202-0122 or by phone at 202/401-1365.
A full description of the requirements under the Uniform Provisions for the participation of private school students under Title XIV.
The Governor's funds can be used for grants or contracts to parents groups, community- based organizations, and job training agencies for programs such as disseminating information about drug and violence prevention; training parents, law enforcement officials, social service providers, and community leaders about drug and violence prevention; developing and implementing comprehensive community-based drug and violence prevention programs that link community resources with schools; before and after-school activities; and developing and implementing strategies to prevent gang violence and violence associated with intolerance and hatred.
The SEA allocates at least 91 percent of funds allocated to the SEA to the LEAs. Seventy percent of the SEA funds are allocated to the LEAs based upon the relative enrollments in public and private nonprofit schools, the remaining 30 percent are allocated to the LEAs determined to have the greatest need. The SEA establishes criteria for greatest need, and must limit distribution to not more than 10 percent of the LEAs in the state, or five such agencies, whichever is greater.
Title IV adds violence prevention as a key element of the program and broadens the types of prevention programs that LEAs can support. Examples of programs that can be supported by the Safe and Drug-Free Schools Program include mentoring, comprehensive health education, community service and service learning projects, conflict resolution, peer mediation, and character education.
Federal funds are allocated, by formula, to states, which then distribute at least 85 percent of the funds to LEAs with a priority on LEAs serving children from low-income families and children from sparsely populated areas.
Section 7501 of Part E of Title VII defines "limited English proficient" as an individual not born in the United States or whose native language is not English or who comes from an environment where a language other than English is dominant and who has sufficient difficulty speaking, reading, writing, or understanding the English language and whose difficulties may deny that person the opportunity to learn successfully in classrooms where the language of instruction is English or to participate fully in society.
In addition, Title VII authorizes the Foreign Language Assistance Program as a discretionary grant program to help SEAs and LEAs establish and improve foreign language instruction in elementary and secondary schools. As with other federal education programs, there is a requirement, unless waived, that federal program dollars be matched with funds from non-federal sources.
Title VII also authorizes the Emergency Immigrant Education Act. Under this program, funds are awarded, on a formula basis, to SEAs that have individual LEAs in which the number of immigrant public and non-public elementary and secondary students is at least 500 or at least 3 percent of the total number of students enrolled in the LEA's public or non-public schools during the fiscal year. The term immigrant children and youth is defined in section 7501 of Part E of Title VII as an individual aged 3 through 21, not born in any state, and have not been attending or more schools in any one or more states for more than three full academic years.
[ Chapter 2.....Part A of Title I... ] [ Chapter 2....Continued...]