A r c h i v e d  I n f o r m a t i o n

School Reform and Student Diversity - September 1995

B. Acknowledgments

The generous hospitality, cooperation, and patience of the teachers, principals, staff, students, and parents at each of our case study schools made this research possible; we thank those who welcomed us into their school communities and opened their doors to our team of researchers. We have been inspired by their creative approaches to confronting and overcoming the many challenges they face as they work steadily toward this goal. Their optimistic outlook and perseverance will serve as an inspiration to all school professionals as they face very similar challenges.

We came away from each visit deeply impressed by the unfailing commitment that teachers, principals, and staff have made to improving the education and overall well-being of their students and their families. The principals who welcomed us at each school and supported our efforts deserve special mention: Richard Camacho, Linda Vista Elementary School, San Diego, California; Roy Ford, Hollibrook Elementary School, Houston, Texas; Eva Helwing, Inter-American School, Chicago, Illinois; Richard Murphy, Horace Mann Middle School, San Francisco, California; Gloria Polanco-McNealy, Del Norte Heights Elementary School, El Paso, Texas; Leonard Solo, Graham and Parks Alternative Public School, Cambridge, Massachusetts; Carmen Stearns, Harold Wiggs Middle School, El Paso, Texas; and Charles Vidal, Evelyn Hanshaw Middle School, Modesto, California. Outstanding teachers at each of the schools opened their doors to us. In large part this volume represents their experiences; we salute them for their skill and dedication. We would also like to thank the district staff who graciously spent time working with us and provided valuable insight during our site visits.

Several people who assisted us in the conceptualization, design, implementation, and dissemination of this study merit our gratitude and recognition. First, we would like to thank our contract monitor Carol Chelemer, at the U.S. Department of Education, Office of Educational Research and Improvement, for her constant support, patience, and interest in our work. We would also like to thank Rene Gonzalez, our former contract monitor at OERI.

We would also like to express our appreciation to the Study Advisors—Courtney Cazden, Harvard University; Eugene Cota-Robles, University of California, Berkeley (Emeritus); Ronald Gallimore, University of California, Los Angeles; Kenji Hakuta, Stanford University; Henry Levin, Stanford University; Walter Secada, University of Wisconsin, Madison; Catherine Snow, Harvard University; and Merrill Swain, The Ontario Institute for Studies in Education. These talented scholars assisted us with the conceptualization of the study, reviewed key products, and helped with the selection of sites.

Other invaluable members of the study team were Stephanie Dalton and Roland Tharp of the National Center for Research on Cultural Diversity and Second Language Learning at the University of California at Santa Cruz, and Faith Conant of Princeton, New Jersey, who conducted classroom observation in Haitian Creole classes at one of the study sites. We would also like to express our gratitude to Sabrina Maras for capturing our descriptions of classroom settings with her sketches and to Glenn Fieldman for her careful editing of this manuscript.

Finally, the study team would like to recognize the hundreds of people who nominated schools during the initial phase of the study’s site selection process. We would like to acknowledge the following individuals for contributing to our initial pool of nominated sites:

Estella Acosta
Bilingual Teacher Training Programs
Office of the Orange County Superintendent of Schools
Costa Mesa, CA
Alice Addison
School Improvement
California Department of Education
Sacramento, CA
Nilda M. Aguirre
Multicultural Education Department
School Board of Broward County
Ft. Lauderdale, FL
Tim Allen
San Diego City Unified School District
San Diego, CA
Shirley Altick
Washoe County Schools
Reno, NV
Diana G. Anderson
Multifunctional Resource Center
San Diego, CA

Richard C. Anderson
Reading Research and Education Center
University of Illinois
Champaign, IL

Arthur N. Applebee
National Research Center on Literature Teaching and Learning State University of New York
Albany, NY
Maria Arias
Socorro Independent School District
El Paso, TX
Elena Arriola
Bilingual Teacher Training Programs
Office of the Los Angeles County Superintendent of Schools
Downey, CA
Kathryn H. Au
American Association of Higher Education
Washington , DC
Leonard Baca
Bueno Center for Multicultural Education
School of Education
University of Colorado
Boulder, CO
Eva Baker
National Research Center on Assessment, Evaluation, and Testing
University of California
Los Angeles, CA
John Bargnesi
Black Rock Academy
Buffalo, NY
Sylvia Barrios
North Dorcester Middle School
Hurlock, MD
Lilia Bartolome
Harvard Graduate School of Education
Cambridge, MA
Clara Basch
Illinois State Board of Education
Springfield, IL
Carol Beaumont
University of California
Berkeley, CA
Sue Beauregard
Galef Institute
Los Angeles, CA
Charles D. Beck Jr.
The Education Diffusion Group
Denver, CO
Adelyn Becker
Multifunctional Resource Center
Providence, RI
John Berriozaobal
University of Texas
San Antonio, TX
Sandra Berry
Department of Education
Juneau, AL
Jomills H. Braddock II
Center for Research on Effective Schooling for Disadvantaged Students
Johns Hopkins University
Baltimore, MD
Vangie Bradshaw
Culver City Unified School District
Culver City, CA
Judy Bramlett
Education Service Region VI
Dallas, TX
Marcia Brechtel
Guided Language Acquisition
Fountain Valley School District
Fountain Valley, CA
Mary E. Brenner
Graduate School of Education
University of California
Santa Barbara, CA
Sylvia Brooks-Brown
Baltimore County Public Schools
Baltimore, MD
Jere Brophy
Center for the Learning and Teaching of Elementary Subjects
Michigan State University
East Lansing, MI
Cynthia Brown
Council of Chief State School Officers
Washington, DC
Sandy Brown
Charlotte/Mecklenburg Schools
Charlotte, NC
Liz Brown
Yukon-Koyukuk School District
Nenana, AK
Ron Bryant
Orange County Schools
Orlando, FL
Barbara Cabrillo
Hacienda-La Puente Unified School District
City of Industry, CA
Peter Cappelli
National Center on the Educational Quality of the Workforce
University of Pennsylvania
Philadelphia, PA
Sue Carpenter
Florida Department of Education
Tallahassee, FL
Carol Carr-Colglazier
Marin Teachers’ Learning Cooperative
Office of the Marin County Superintendent of Schools
San Rafael, CA
Argelia Carreon
El Paso Independent School District
El Paso, TX
Lupe Castillo
New Mexico Department of Education
Santa Fe, NM
Mary Cazabon
Cambridge Public Schools
Cambridge, MA
Courtney Cazden
Harvard Graduate School of Education
Cambridge, MA
Susan Chavez
Multifunctional Resource Center
San Diego, CA
Donna Christian
Center for Applied Linguistics
Washington, DC
Lorraine Clayton
Florida Department of Education
Tallahassee, FL
Grace Coates
Project EQUALS
Lawrence Hall of Science
Berkeley, CA
Trudy Collier
Maryland Department of Education
Baltimore, MD
Deanna Cortez
Bilingual Education and Indian Programs
Utah Office of Education
Salt Lake City, UT
Eugene Cota-Robles
University of California
Berkeley, CA
Gilberto Jose Cueva
School of Education
University of Miami
Coral Gables, FL
Theresa Dale
Baltimore City Public Schools
Baltimore, MD
Mary Lynda Daley
University of Massachusetts
Boston, MA
Arlene Dannenberg
Salem Public Schools
Salem, MA
Phil Daro
Office of the President
University of California
Berkeley, CA
Lucia David
Institute for Learning and Teaching
University of Massachusetts
Boston , MA
Don Davies
Center on Families, Communities, Schools, and Children’s Learning
Boston University
Boston, MA
Denise De La Rosa Salazar
National Council of La Raza
Los Angeles, CA
Michael de la Torre
Bilingual Education
Nevada Department of Education
Carson City, NV
David R. Delgado
Bilingual Teacher Training Programs
Office of the Monterey County Superintendent of Schools
Salinas, CA
Myrna Delgado
Department of Education
Harrisburg, PA
David Dolson
Bilingual Education Office California Department of Education
Sacramento, CA
John Dominguez
Migrant/Bilingual Education
Van Buren Intermediate School District
Lawrence, MI
Dora S. Dominguez
Migrant Education Program Michigan Department of Education
Lansing, MI
Jan Drum
Stanley Foundation
Muscatine, IA
Barbara Duffy
Association of California School Administrators
Burlingame, CA
Thaddeus Dumas
Middle Grades Office
California Department of Education
Sacramento, CA
Costanza Eggers-Pierda
Institute for Learning & Teaching
University of Massachusettes
Boston, MA
Andrea England
Instruction Division
Texas Education Agency
Austin, TX
Ruben Espinosa
Multifunctional Resource Center
San Diego, CA
Pola Espinoza
Alianza Elementary School
Watsonville, CA
Mary Ester Bernal
San Antonio Independent School District
San Antonio, TX
Joanne Foster
El Paso Independent School District El Paso, TX
Sarah W. Freedman
National Center for the Study of Writing and Literacy University of California
Berkeley, CA
Susan Fuhrman
Center for Policy Research in Education
Rutgers University
New Brunswick, NJ
J. Michael Gaddis
Office of Federal Relations and Instructional Services
Colorado Department of Education
Denver, CO
Annette Gaddis
Fort Lupton School District
Fort Lupton, CO
Alejandro Gallard
Science Education
Florida State University
Tallahassee, FL
Ronald Gallimore
Department of Psychiatry & Behavioral Sciences
University of California
Los Angeles, CA
Patricia Gandara
Division of Education
University of California
Davis, CA
Yvonne Garcia
Multifunctional Resource Center
San Diego, CA
Nilda Garcia
Austin Public Schools
Austin, TX
David Garza
Texas Higher Education Coordinating Council
Austin, TX
Robert Glaser
National Research Center on Student Learning
University of Pittsburgh
Pittsburgh, PA
Jose M. Gonzalez
Department of Educational Administration
Teachers College
Columbia University
New York, NY
Tony Gonzalez
Bilingual Teacher Training Programs
Office of the San Mateo County Superintendent of Schools
Redwood City, CA
Antonio Gonzalez
Bilingual Education
Granite School District
Salt Lake City, UT
James Gray
California Writing Project
University of California
Berkeley, CA
Steve Grubis
College of Rural Alaska
Fairbanks, AK
Elisa Guitierrez
Bilingual Education
Texas Education Agency
Austin, TX
Clemens I. Hallman
University of Florida
Gainseville, FL
Else Hamayan
Illinois Resource Center
Des Plaines, IL
Jan Hawkins
Center for Technology in Education
Bank Street College of Education
New York, NY
Kati Haycock
American Association of Higher Education
Washington, DC
Gilman Hebert
Bureau of Equity in Language Services
Quincy, MA
Stella Helvie
Second Language Programs Clark County Schools
Las Vegas, NV
Frances Hensley
Georgia Facilitator Center
Athens, GA
Maria A. Hernandez
Bureau of Bilingual Education
New Jersey Department of Education
Trenton, NJ
Geraldine Herrera
Office of Bilingual/ESL Education
Los Angeles Unified School District
Los Angeles, CA
Elaina Herschowitz
School Leadership Center
San Diego County Office of Education
San Diego, CA
Ray Holman
Berrien Springs Public Schools
Berrien Springs, MI
Juan Hurtado
Multifunctional Resource Center
San Diego, CA
Elsie Ireland
La Feria Independent School District
La Feria, TX
Julia Jackson
Educational Service Center Region II
New York, NY
Kamil Jbeily
Curriculum & Textbooks
Texas Education Agency
Austin, TX
Frederick L. Jenks
Florida State University
Tallahassee, FL
Judy Kass
American Association for the Advancement of Science
Washington, DC
Mary Kennedy
National Center for Research on Teacher Learning
Michigan State University
East Lansing, MI
Anne Kiefer
Chicago Project for Learning and Teaching
National College of Education
Evanston, IL
Barbara Knapp
Minnesota State Facilitator Office
The Exchange at CAREI
Minneapolis, MN
Nancy Kreinberg
Project EQUALS
Lawrence Hall of Science
Berkeley, CA
Ruta Krusa
Healdsburg Union School District
Healdsburg, CA
Judith Kysh
CRESS Center
University of California
Davis, CA
Hernan La Fontaine
School of Education
Southern Connecticut State University
New Haven, CT
Beverly Lancaster
Winston Salem/Forsyth County Schools
Winston Salem, NC
Diane Lassman
Minnesota State Facilitator Office
The Exchange at CAREI
Minneapolis, MN
Elva Laurel
University of Texas
Brownsville, TX
Wei-lin Lei
Multifunctional Resource Center
San Diego, CA
Henry Levin
Stanford University
Palo Alto, CA
Robert L. Linn
National Center for Research on Assessment, Evaluation, and Testing
University of California
Los Angeles, CA
Ann Lippencott
University of California
Santa Barbara, CA
Alicia Lomas
Bilingual Teacher Training Programs
Office of the Tulare County Superintendent of Schools
Visalia, CA
Nancy Love
The Network
Andover, MA
Ramon Magallanes
Fort Worth Independent School District
Fort Worth, TX
Maria Helena Malagon
Division of ESOL/Bilingual Programs
Montgomery County Public Schools
Rockville, MD
Tina Marinez
Bilingual Teacher Training Programs
Office of the Riverside County Superintendent of Schools
Riverside, CA
Lila Martin
Bilingual Teacher Training Programs
Office of the Imperial County Superintendent of Schools
El Centro, CA
Pedro Maymi
Yonkers Public Schools
Yonkers, NY
Niki McCurry
Alaska Writing Program Yukon Koyukuk School District
Nenana, AK
Milbrey McLaughlin
Center for Research on the Context of Secondary School Teaching
Stanford University
Palo Alto, CA
Maria Medina Seidner
Bilingual Department
Illinois Board of Education
Chicago, IL
Hugh Mehan
University of California
San Diego, CA
Shirley Menendez
Statewide Facilitator Project
Metropolis, IL
Naomi Millender
Chicago Teacher's Center Chicago, IL
Edgar Miranda
Rochester City School District
Rochester, NY
Peter Mitchell
International Reading Association
Newark, DE
Marci Mitchell
Progress Independent School District
Progress, TX
Jesse Montano
Bilingual Education Unit
Minnesota Department of Education
St. Paul, MN
Guadalupe Montez
South San Antonio Independent School District
San Antonio, TX
Albert Moreno
Bilingual Teacher Training Programs
San Jose Unified School District
San Jose, CA
Rocio F. Moss
Multifunctional Resource Center
San Diego, CA
Marisol Naso
Bilingual Education
San Bernardino City Unified School District
San Bernardino, CA
Mattye Nelson
Office of Outreach Services
American Association of School Librarians
Chicago, IL
Freya Neumann
Equity and Multicultural Education Section
Madison, WI
Fred M. Newmann
Center on Organization and Restructuring of Schools
University of Wisconsin
Madison, WI
Sonya Nieto
School of Education
University of Massachusetts
Amherst, MA
Mary Nordhouse
New Mexico Bureau of Education, Planning & Development
Santa Fe, NM
James O’Connor
Boston Public Schools
Boston, MA
Albert Ochoa
Teacher Education
San Diego State University
San Diego, CA
Laurie Olsen
California Tomorrow
San Francisco, CA
Preddy Oseguerra
Bilingual Education
Salt Lake City School District
Salt Lake City, UT
Julio Palecios
Curriculum Department Edcouch-Elsa Independent School District
Edcouch, TX
Philip Pasmanick
Berkeley Teachers’ Center
Berkeley, CA
Verma Pastor
Arizona Department of Education
Phoenix, AZ
Alice S. Paul
College of Education
University of Arizona
Tucson, AZ
Ron Pearlman
Illinois Resource Center
Des Plaines, IL
Sylvia Pena
Department of Curriculum and Instruction
University of Houston
Houston, TX
Carmen Perez-Hogan
Division of Bilingual Education
New York Department of Education
Albany, NY
Alice Petrossian
Glendale Unified School District
Glendale, CA
C. William Phillips
Division of Inservice Education
Ohio Department of Education
Columbus, OH
Barbara Piekarski
Catawba County Schools
Newton, NC
Anabel Pinero
Davis School District
Farmington, UT
Delia Pompa
National Coalition of Advocates for Students
Boston, MA
Charlotte Powers
Professional Development Seminars
San Jose, CA
David Ramirez
California State University
Long Beach, CA
Arnulfo Ramirez
Department of Foreign Languages & Literature Louisiana State University
Baton Rouge, LA
Carmen L. Ramos
Hispanic Policy Development Project
New York, NY
Akram Rana
Curriculum Department Weslaco Independent School District
Weslaco, TX
James L. Ratcliff
National Center on Postsecondary Teaching, Learning, and Assessment Pennsylvania State University University Park, PA
Porter Reed
Illinois State Board of Education
Springfield, IL
Joseph Renzulli
National Research Center on the Gifted & Talented University of Connecticut
Storrs, CT
Lauren Resnick
National Research Center on Student Learning
University of Pittsburgh
Pittsburgh, PA
Mary Alice Reyes
Curriculum Department Edcouch-Elsa Independent School District
Edcouch, TX
Nancy Rhodes
Center for Applied Linguistics
Washington, DC
Charlene Rivera
The Evaluation Assistance Center
George Washington University
Arlington, VA
Laraine M. Roberts
Program Development Center
California School Leadership Academy
Hayward, CA
Janine Roberts
Los Angeles Teacher Center
Encino, CA
Robert E. Robison
Columbus City Schools
Columbus, OH
Cliff Rodrigues
Bilingual Teacher Training Programs
Office of the Ventura County Superintendent of Schools
Ventura, CA
Michelle Rohr
National Council of Supervisors of Mathematics
Houston, TX
Thomas Romberg
National Center for Research in Mathematical Sciences Education
University of Wisconsin
Madison, WI
Sharon Rorhke
Modesto City Schools
Modesto, CA
Ira Rosenholtz
Illinois Council of Teachers of Mathematics
Eastern Illinois Univesity
Charleston, IL
Robert E. Rossier
Intercultural Development Research Association
San Antonio, TX
Al Rubio
Greensboro City Schools
Greensboro, NC
Miguel Ruiz
Michigan Department of Education
Lansing, MI
Rosalia Salinas
Bilingual Teacher Training Programs
Office of the San Diego County Superintendent of Schools
San Diego, CA
Cecelia Santa Ana
Michigan Department of Education
Lansing, MI
Maria Santory
New York City Public Schools
Brooklyn, NY
Maria Schaub
Montgomery County Public Schools
Rockville, MD
Walter Secada
Curriculum & Instruction University of Wisconsin
Madison, WI
Deborah Sercombe
Edison Middle School
Boston Public Schools
Brighton, MA
Rodolfo Serna
Department of Language and Cultural Education
Chicago Board of Education
Chicago, IL
Christine Sleeter
University of Wisconsin, Parkside
Kenosha, WI
Roberta Smith
New Mexico Bureau of Education, Planning & Development
Santa Fe, NM
Catherine Snow
Harvard Graduate School of Education
Cambridge, MA
Michelle Soria-Dunn
Department of Public Instruction
Des Moines, IA
Rochelle Spiegel-Coleman
Los Angeles County Office of Education
Los Angeles, CA
Susan Spoeneman
The Teacher’s Center
Huntington Beach, CA
Elizabeth Stage
California Science Project University of California
Berkeley, CA
Holly Stein
Prince Georges County Schools
Bladensburg Instructional Service Center
Bladensburg, MD
Loretta Strong
Bilingual Teacher Training Programs
Healdsburg Union School District
Healdsburg, CA
Daniel Stufflebeam
National Center for Research on Educational Accountability and Teacher Evaluation
Western Michigan University
Kalamazoo, MI
Merrill Swain
The Ontario Institute for Studies in Education
Toronto, Canada
Winnie Tang
San Francisco Federal Teacher Center
San Francisco, CA
Roland Tharp
University of California
Santa Cruz, CA
Deborah Tippins
Science Education Department
University of Georgia
Athens, GA
Maria Torres
Southwest Regional Educational Laboratory
Los Alamitos, CA
Jerry Toussaint
North Carolina State Department of Education
Raleigh, NC
G. Richard Tucker
Carnegie Mellon University
Pittsburgh, PA
Martha Valdez
Ysleta Independent School District
El Paso, TX
Johanna Vetcher
South Bay Union School District
Imperial Beach, CA
Joseph Voccolo
Buffalo City Schools
Buffalo, NY
Daniel Wagner
National Center on Adult Literacy
University of Pennsylvania
Philadelphia, PA
Susan Walker
Teacher Outreach
Foxfire Fund
Raburn Gap, GA
Catherine Walsh
Multifunctional Resource Center
Boston, MA
Margaret C. Wang
National Research Center on Education in the Inner Cities
Temple University
Philadelphia, PA
Beth Warren
TERC
Cambridge, MA
Lucille J. Watahomigie
Tradition & Technology Project
Peach Springs School District
Peach Springs, AZ
Leon L. Webb
Educational Diffusion Systems, Inc.
Mesa, AZ
Arthur L. White
National Center for Science Teaching and Learning
Ohio State University
Columbus, OH
Lola Williams
Harlingen Independent School District
Harlingen, TX
Martha L. Williams
Dayton Public Schools
Dayton, OH
Karen Yeager
Kalamazoo Public Schools
Kalamazoo, MI
Peter Zachariou
Pacific View Staff Development Center
Pacifica, CA

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