Extending Learning Time for Disadvantaged Students - Volume 2 Profiles of Promising Practices - 1995

A r c h i v e d  I n f o r m a t i o n

Appendix B - Resources for Planning and Implementing Extended-Time Programs for Disadvantaged Students


I. Recent Case Studies of Extended-Time Programs

The following reports contain descriptive profiles of extended-time programs for disadvantaged students. Most also include information on contacting the programs.

Adelman, N. (1991).
Staff development for teachers of disadvantaged students. Washington DC: Policy Studies Associates, Inc.

Funkhouser, J., & Chimerine, C. B. (1991).
Extended instructional time for disadvantaged students: Examples of local projects. Washington, DC: Policy Studies Associates, Inc.

Millsap, M., Turnbull, B., Moss, M., Brigham, N., Gamse, B., & Marks, E. (1992).
The Chapter 1 implementation study. Interim report. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education.

Moore, M. T., & Funkhouser, J. (1990).
More time to learn: Extended-time strategies for Chapter 1 students. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, Office of Planning, Budget, and Evaluation.

Pringle, B. A., Spiro, D., Anderson, L., Richardson, L., Rubenstein, M., & Thompson, M. (1991).
Mentoring and peer tutoring projects funded under the secondary schools basic skills demonstration assistance program. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, Office of Planning, Budget, and Evaluation.

Seppanen, P. S., Kaplan deVries, D., & Seligson, M. (1993).
National study of before and after school programs: Executive summary. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, Office of Policy and Planning.

Seppanen, P. S., Kaplan deVries, D., & Seligson, M. (1993).
National study of before and after school programs: Final report. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, Office of Policy and Planning.

Stringfield, S., Winfield, L., Millsap, M., Puma, M., Gamse, B., & Randall, B. (1994).
Urban and suburban/rural special strategies for educating disadvantaged children: First year report. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, Office of Policy and Planning.

U.S. Department of Education. (1991).
America 2000. An education strategy. Washington, DC: Author.

U.S. Department of Education. (1993).
Summer challenge: Model programs for disadvantaged students. Washington, DC: Author.

II. Selected National Organizations Offering Extended Learning Opportunities for Youth1

The following national organizations have developed programs that can be offered during non-school hours. Although most programs focus on hands-on academic enrichment or leadership and citizenship development, many local sites also offer tutoring and other more traditional academic activities. Several offer extensive staff development or curriculum resources, as well as information on populations with special needs. All programs focus efforts on poor or otherwise at-risk populations.

ASPIRA Association, Inc.

ASPIRA promotes education and leadership development among Hispanic youth. Founded in New York City in 1961, it now has community-based affiliates in six states: Florida, Illinois, New Jersey, New York, Connecticut, and Pennsylvania. Youth participate through ASPIRA clubs, where they develop leadership and academic skills, explore careers, and participate in community service. ASPIRA offers several program planning guides, including one on organizing and working with parent groups. ASPIRA monitors federal policies, conducts and disseminates research on the needs of Hispanic youth through its Institute on Policy Research, conducts advocacy for Hispanic youth, and assists with network building.

Hilda Crespo
Interim National Executive Director
ASPIRA Association, Inc.
1112 16th Street, NW
Suite 340
Washington, DC 20036
(202) 835-3600

The Association of Junior Leagues International (AJLI)

AJLI is an organization of women committed to promoting volunteerism and improving the community through the effective action and leadership of trained volunteers. The 284 Junior Leagues throughout the United States, Canada, Mexico, and Great Britain have a collective membership of more than 190,000 women. AJLI has two issue priorities: child health and education. AJLI supports efforts to ensure that all people have access to the education necessary to be productive members of society. Currently, two related programs provide strategies to achieve this end. The Partnership for Progress (PFP) program helps establish the community as a major stakeholder in school reform. The Teen Outreach Program (TOP) helps at-risk youth avoid school failure, adolescent pregnancy, and substance abuse. Operating in 108 classrooms in 39 cities, TOP includes facilitated group discussions and a community service component. AJLI also publishes periodicals and resources that provide technical assistance, background information, and strategies for community impact in key areas (including education).

Holly Sloan
National Executive Director
Association of Junior Leagues International
660 First Avenue
New York, NY 10016-3241
(212) 951-8338

Big Brothers and Big Sisters of America

Big Brothers/Sisters, founded in 1904, matches one child--usually from a single-parent, low-income family--with one adult volunteer who serves as a mentor, friend, and role model. Adult volunteers dedicate between three and six hours a week to the project for a minimum of one year. Big Brothers/Sisters has developed four national initiatives to reach more at-risk youth: developing school-linked programs, recruiting minority volunteers, involving older adults as mentors, and training mentors. The organization consists of a national office linked with independent, locally run agencies. Agencies also provide counseling, referral, and family support services.

Thomas M. McKenna
National Executive Director
Big Brothers and Big Sisters of America
230 North 13th Street
Philadelphia, PA 19107
(215) 667-7749

Boys and Girls Clubs of America

Founded in 1906 as a boys' club, the organization--now coeducational--is a federation of local, autonomous clubs. These programs offer activities in citizenship and leadership development, cultural enrichment, social recreation, and personal educational development. There are approximately 175 clubs located in public housing projects.

Thomas G. Garth
Boys and Girls Clubs of America
771 First Avenue
New York, NY 10017
(212) 351-5900

Educational Equity Concepts (EEC)

This national nonprofit organization, founded in 1982, strives to decrease discrimination in education based on gender, race/ethnicity, and disability. EEC conducts training, workshops, and research, and provides written and hands-on materials for use in and out of the classroom, beginning with prekindergarten students. One program designed to involve parents in the science education of their children, Playtime is Science, has recently expanded from its New York City base to 10 national regions. Using materials commonly found in any home or classroom, parents are trained to engage their children in hands-on, inquiry-based physical science activities that develop analytical, spatial, social, and language skills.

Merle Froschl and Barbara Sprung
Educational Equity Concepts
114 East Thirty-Second Street
New York, NY 10016
(212) 725-1803

Hands On Science Outreach, Inc. (HOSO)

The HOSO mission is to develop and disseminate informal science and math education enrichment experiences for children in prekindergarten through elementary school. The informal science program is for use before- or after-school and during evenings, weekends, or summers; the program offers adult training, written curriculum guides, and resource kits. HOSO, which began in 1980 as an after-school recreational science program, has been administered in Montgomery County, Maryland, by the local council of PTAs' nonprofit corporation, Educational Programs, Inc. HOSO was incorporated in 1984 to respond to requests for programs outside its original location. The National Science Foundation began funding HOSO in 1985 to test the viability of the program in other communities. HOSO programs now can be found nationwide.

Hands On Science Outreach, Inc.
4910 Macon Road
Rockville, MD 20852
(301) 881-1142

The National 4-H Clubs

The National 4-H Clubs is part of the U.S. Department of Agriculture's Cooperative Extension Service, established by Congress in 1914. The purpose is to provide practical education through hands-on activities. 4-H programs, which operate out of land-grant universities and colleges, target youth in rural, suburban, and urban areas. Youth can participate in programs through clubs, special interest components, school enrichment, individual study, and instructional television. Although local programs vary, topics typically include agriculture and natural sciences, science and technology, career education, leadership development, community service, and communications.

Richard Sauer
President and CEO
National 4-H Council
7100 Connecticut Avenue
Chevy Chase, MD 20815
(301) 961-2830


Alma Hobbs
Assistant Deputy Administrator
4-H Youth Development, Room 3860
U.S. Department of Agriculture
14th and Independence, SW
Washington, DC 20250-0900
(202) 690-4970

National Urban League

The National Urban League's revised missions are to help African Americans achieve social and economic equality and to promote opportunities for all minorities and the poor. Local affiliates conduct direct service programs in their communities, addressing employment, education, and economic development. All local affiliates have education initiatives or support activities for academic achievement. National programs for youth, adopted by some affiliates, address such topics as academic improvement and motivation, leadership development, and community service.

John E. Jacob
President and CEO
National Urban League
500 East 62nd Street
New York, NY 10021
(212) 310-9000

III. National Associations and Resource Centers

The following selected national associations and resource centers offer information and materials that may be useful to planners of extended-time programs. Several sources can provide curriculum and program guides as well as technical assistance.

Center For Early Adolescence

Founded in 1978 to promote the healthy growth and development of young adolescents, the Center for Early Adolescence is part of the University of North Carolina-Chapel Hill's school of medicine. The center's programs include major initiatives in adolescent literacy, urban middle-grade reform, the preparation of middle-grade teachers, promotion of adolescent health, community collaborations for youth, and leadership development for young workers. The multi-disciplinary library provides information on promising practices for school and community programs as well as referrals to other organizations. The center offers training for professionals and volunteers using a comprehensive curriculum in parent education and provides consultation on curriculum development, program design, and staff development.

Center for Early Adolescence
School of Medicine
University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill
D-2 Carr Mill Town Center
Carrboro, NC 27510
(919) 966-1148

National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC)

NAEYC offers resources and services to early childhood professionals, parents, and policy makers focusing on child development and early education. Services include numerous professional development resources on issues such as developmentally appropriate practice, curriculum and assessment, standardized testing, and teacher preparation.

National Association for the Education of Young Children
1834 Connecticut Avenue, NW
Washington, DC 20009
(202) 232-8777

National Association for Year-Round Education (NAYRE)

NAYRE serves as a clearinghouse for information on year-round education and is the chief repository of this information in the United States. NAYRE regularly refers school districts to speakers with year-round education expertise. In addition to responding to inquiries, NAYRE forwards materials provided by school districts with year-round schedules to those interested in the concept.

National Association for Year-Round Education
P.O. Box 711386
San Diego, CA 92171-1386
(619) 276-5296

National Center for Service Learning in Early Adolescence

The National Center for Service Learning in Early Adolescence is a resource for educators, youth workers, and policy makers seeking to meet the developmental needs of early adolescents. The Center:

Alice Halstead
The National Center for Service Learning in Early Adolescence
CASE: The Graduate School and University Center of CUNY
25 West 43rd Street
Suite 612
New York, NY 10036-8099
(212) 642-2946

National Education Service Foundation (NESF)

NESF is a nonprofit educational service that helps national and local leaders provide "systematic approaches for ensuring the health, well-being, and joy in learning of America's youth." NESF supports the use of Dr. W. Edwards Deming's quality principles as one means of transforming American education systems. Forums, conference materials, and in-depth profiles of individual schools are available on video cassette.


National Education Service Foundation
1610 West Third Street
P.O. Box 906
Bloomington, IN 47402-0906
(812) 336-7714

School-Age Child Care (SACC) Project

This multifaceted project at the Center for Research on Women at Wellesley College began as an attempt to raise awareness and establish school-age child care programs. The project currently focuses on meeting policy and implementation challenges and enhancing the quality of existing programs. SACC addresses the needs of parents, school administrators, caregivers, and local and state policy makers through field studies, research, evaluations, workshops and consultations, leadership training, conferences, and publications.

School-Age Child Care Project
Wellesley College
Center for Research on Women
Wellesley, MA 02181
(617) 283-2547

School-Age Notes

This national organization publishes a monthly newsletter for school-age care professionals and offers ideas, strategies, and abundant resources for working with school-age children. Topics include before- and after-school programs, staff development, developmentally appropriate practices, and suggestions for hands-on program activities in a variety of subject areas.

School-Age Notes
P.O. Box 40205
Nashville, TN 37204
(615) 242-8464

1Many of these descriptions are adapted from A Matter of Time: Risk and Opportunity in the Non-School Hours, Carnegie Corporation of New York, December 1992.
[Appendix A] [Table of Contents] [Appendix C]