Extending Learning Time for Disadvantaged Students - Volume 1 Summary of Promising Practices - 1995
A r c h i v e d I n f o r m a t i o n
A Continuous Search For Creative Funding
Extended-time programs that serve highly disadvantaged populations often are located in the very poorest urban and rural settings, where local school budgets must stretch to provide even the required amount of instruction. Some extended-time programs operate without any budget beyond that normally associated with the school or administering agency. For example, the after-school study centers operated by the Omaha Housing Authority benefit from space available at the public housing developments, curriculum materials from local schools, volunteer tutors from the community, and contributions from local businesses for computers, equipment, and software.
Most extended-time programs, however, require more funding than the general education appropriations that schools receive from states and local districts. Especially in the poorest locations, education funding is always subject to demands from many sources. In addition, grants expire--and even dedicated volunteers eventually move on. Extended-time program planners should search for funding continuously and creatively, looking to both new and traditional sources of education funding for support. Some options for funding used by the extended-time programs profiled here include reliance on federal categorical programs, special funding from state departments of education, funds from private educational organizations, and support from community agencies or organizations.
Federal Categorical Programs
Federal categorical funding, including Title I basic and migrant education, Title VII bilingual education, and the Job Training Partnership Act, supports a portion of many of the programs profiled here. Title I pays all or notable amounts of the funding for several programs: the Title I Summer Program for Private School Children, Florence's extended-day kindergarten, the summer enhancement program in Charleston, and the Summer Institute for At-Risk Migrant Students.
State Departments of Education
State departments of education also provide special funding for extended-time programs. Examples include a North Dakota state grant for educating homeless children, a Texas line-item appropriation for districtwide intersession programs, South Carolina's Educational Improvement Act funds, and the California Department of Education's fee waiver for 95 percent of the students at the Yuk Yau center in Oakland.
Private Educational Organizations Other programs receive funds from private educational organizations, which usually fund local programs only partially; implementation of the programs may help districts or schools secure grants from foundations. For example, ASPIRA provides some funding to Chicago public schools that operate the after-school programs, while the school district and local schools provide space, supplies, and staff; private funding has eased the financial burden on the district and schools. Local Teen Outreach Projects (TOP) operate in a similar way. The national TOP program funds evaluation and technical assistance, and community sponsors at individual sites raise funds to cover operating costs. In Tuolumne County, California, the county office of education and a community agency solicited grants in 1993 to cover the $32,700 annual budget.
In some instances, private organizations fully fund local programs, leaving the schools responsible only for providing space. Raising Hispanic Academic Achievement in Silver Spring, Maryland, does not require any contribution from local schools or the district--and in fact the program pays rent on its space in a school.
Community Agencies and Organizations Community agencies and organizations can provide substantial support for extended-time programs. For example, the Kids Crew after-school, weekend, and summer programs are supported entirely by the Brooklyn Children's Museum (primarily through foundation funding). In the past, the Educational Program for Homeless Children and Youth in Devil's Lake, North Dakota, received half of its annual budget for salaries and transportation from a local child welfare reform agency. This program also benefits from community support in the form of access to activities offered by the local department of parks and recreation.
[A Willingness To Resolve Or Work Around Obstacles]