In many school- or district-developed programs, teachers apply to serve in the extended-time sessions and are selected on the basis of their experience with at-risk students and their desire to participate in the extended-time program. In most cases, program administrators or coordinators receive payment. Teachers often receive extended contracts, bonuses, or stipends. Among the programs discussed here, school-affiliated programs infrequently use volunteers.
Partnerships between outside agencies and schools may rely on a nonteaching administrator to coordinate overall management of extended-time programs, but they also may rely on volunteers instead of paid teaching staffs. For example, teachers do not receive extra pay in the Teen Outreach Program in Sonora, California; the program consists of a course taught during regular school hours and a one-hour-per-week commitment to work with students after school on community service projects.
Partnership programs that rely heavily on volunteers should provide training. In the Teen Outreach Program, staff from the sponsoring Association of Junior Leagues International visit each new site to provide facilitators with two days of intensive training on the program curriculum. Through role playing, trainers focus on ways to encourage student participation and self-reflection and build assertiveness and communication skills. Volunteers for extended-time programs typically include retired teachers, community professionals, students from local colleges and universities, and high school students who serve as peer counselors or tutors.
At Raising Hispanic Academic Achievement, tutors receive two training sessions a year from teacher volunteers. Topics include techniques for teaching math, English, and reading to students of differing abilities and a review of the state math test, curriculum, and course objectives. Tutors also receive a summary of issues affecting Hispanic academic achievement and research on teaching math to language-minority children. Tutors and trainers explore problem solving through role playing.
Still, many extended-time programs cannot serve all students who may be eligible to participate and could benefit from the program. The generally accepted practice--and often a legislative requirement for categorical programs--is to serve the neediest students first. The extended-time programs profiled here demonstrate a variety of methods, often used in combination, for determining student need:
Privately funded programs, although usually not required to select the neediest students, may depend on teachers or other school personnel to encourage students considered at high risk of school failure to attend the extended-time programs.
Typically, teachers or tutors working directly with students meet regularly to review student needs and progress. At the Yuk Yau Child Development Center in Oakland, California, teachers from the Center and the local school talk daily about students' needs for special assistance or any problems that develop.