A r c h i v e d  I n f o r m a t i o n

U.S. Department of Education FY 1999 Annual Plan - February 27, 1998

Special Education


Special Education Grants to States and Preschool Grants-- $4,184,685,000 (FY 99)
Goal: To improve results for children with disabilities by assisting state and local education agencies provide children with disabilities access to high-quality education that will help them meet challenging standards and prepare them for employment and independent living.

Objectives

Indicators

Source and Next Update

Strategies

Program improvement
1. States ensure children with disabilities are a part of all accountability systems and actively work to monitor and improve their performance. 1.1 Performance goals and strategies. By 1998 all states will have established performance goals and strategies for children with disabilities aged 3-21, and will report progress in meeting those goals.

1.2 Participation in assessments. Children with disabilities, as appropriate, will be included in regular state assessment and results reported starting July 1998.

1.3 Participation in alternate assessments. Children with disabilities in regular assessments will participate in alternate assessments and results reported starting July 2000.

1.1 State reported data, 1998 and 1999.

1.2 Data from the Outcomes Center, 1998.

1.3 Data from the Outcomes Center, 1998; NCES Fast Response Survey, 1996-1998.

• Monitor to ensure that states develop goals and strategies and include children with disabilities in assessments.

• Support state reform efforts through State Improvement Grants.

• Conduct research, provide technical assistance, and disseminate information on appropriate accommodations for assessments, alternative assessments, performance goals, and interpreting assessment results.

• Inform parents of assessment requirements through parent training and information dissemination.

2. States are assessing their needs for professional development and taking appropriate action. 2.1 Emergency/temporary certifications. The percentage of teachers who have emergency or temporary certification will be reduced.

2.2 Appropriately trained teachers. The percentage of regular and special education teachers with the skills and knowledge to appropriately serve children with disabilities will increase.

2.3 Reciprocity. The number of states with reciprocity agreements regarding certification will increase.

2.1 Schools and Staffing survey, 1999.

2.2 Schools and Staffing Survey, 1999.

2.3 Professional Clearinghouse and Grantee reports, annual.

• Monitor State Improvement Grants and State Comprehensive Systems of Personnel Development (CSPDs) to ensure that states are addressing personnel needs.

• Provide technical assistance to states to assist them in addressing their personnel needs.

• Support personnel development activities, including preparing personnel and developing model teacher preparation programs.

3. States effectively monitor local school districts and provide technical assistance and take other actions as appropriate to ensure compliance with the Act. 3.1 State monitoring. The percentage of states deemed to effectively monitor local educational agencies on implementing the requirements of IDEA will increase.

3.2 State technical assistance. The percentage of States deemed to provide effective technical assistance to poorly performing local educational agencies on implementing the requirements of IDEA will increase.

3.1 Monitoring one-quarter of states, annual.

3.2 Monitoring one quarter of states, annual.

• Monitor states and take appropriate corrective action to ensure that States carry out their monitoring responsibilities.

• Monitor to ensure that states address technical assistance needs of local educational agencies in their State Improvement Grants plans.

Access to high quality education
4. All children with disabilities will participate in the general curriculum to the maximum extent appropriate. 4.1 Participation in the regular classroom. The percentage of children with disabilities who participate in the general curriculum most of their day in the regular classroom, with appropriate supports and accommodations such as behavioral interventions and adaptive instructional materials will increase. Preschool children with disabilities will receive services in settings with typically developing peers. 45% of children with disabilities ages 3 through 21 and 51% of children aged 3 through 5 were reported by states as being served in regular education classrooms for the 1994-95 school year. 4.1 State reported data, 1998; Schools and Staffing Survey, 1999; Longitudinal study of children with disabilities starting in the fourth grade, 2000. • Monitor states to ensure access to the regular education curriculum and compliance with the least restrictive environment provisions.

• Conduct research, provide technical assistance and disseminate information on including children with disabilities in the general curriculum and in the least restrictive environment.

• Support professional development that provides personnel with the skills and knowledge they needed to serve children with disabilities in the least restrictive environment.

• Facilitate the participation of children with disabilities in charter schools.

5. Students 14 and older will take courses and receive services that will facilitate the transition from school to work or postsecondary education. 5.1 Participation in appropriate secondary education. The access of children with disabilities to appropriate quality academic, vocational education, or other programs that address their needs will increase. The National Longitudinal Transition Study (NLTS) reported that 65% of students with disabilities took one or more vocational education courses during their most recent year in secondary school.

5.2 Transition services. All children with disabilities ages 14 and older will have IEPs that include a statement of transition service needs that will help focus on the child's courses of study in advanced-placement courses or a vocational education program. The High School Transcript Study found that students with disabilities earned more credits in vocational courses in high school than other students did (5 credits vs. 4 credits).

5.1 Bureau of Labor Statistics- National Longitudinal Survey Youth, 1996. Transcript study conducted in 1990, and in 1994 Transcript study that was conducted in conjunction with the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP).

5.2 Monitoring reports, one quarter of states, annual Evaluation of Transition Requirements, 1999.

• Ensure that states monitor local school districts for the development and implementation of appropriate Individualized Educational Programs (IEPs) and access to vocational education.

• Conduct research, provide technical assistance, and disseminate information on providing access to academic programs and vocational education programs that meet high standards.

• Support professional development that provides personnel with the skills and knowledge needed to provide academic programs and vocational education that meet high standards.

6. All children with disabilities will receive appropriate services that address their individual needs, including related services such as assistive technology. 6.1 Parent satisfaction. The percentage of parents who are satisfied with their child's education will increase over time.

6.2 Teachers' view. The percentage of teachers reporting that children receive the services they need will increase over time.

6.1 National Household Survey, 1999; Longitudinal Elementary School Study, 2000; Kindergarten Survey, 2000.

6.2 Schools and Staffing Survey, 1999.

• Ensure that states monitor for parent and regular education teachers' participation in IEP development and placement decisions.

• Conduct research on home school collaboration.

• Provide technical assistance, disseminate information, and train personnel on practices to improve educational results particularly in the area of home-school collaboration.

7. Schools will provide appropriate behavioral interventions for children with disabilities whose behavior impedes the learning of themselves or others. 7.1 Disciplinary actions. The percentage of children with disabilities who have been suspended or expelled will decrease.

7.2 Identification of children with emotional disturbance. Children with emotional disturbance will be identified earlier.

7.1 Project FORUM, 1999.

7.2 Special studies of children with disabilities served, 2000.

• Monitor states to ensure that children with disabilities are not being inappropriately suspended or expelled.

• Conduct research, provide technical assistance, and disseminate information on addressing behavior in children with disabilities, including children with emotional disturbance and behavior problems.

• Support professional development on addressing behavior for children with disabilities.

Challenging standards and preparation for employment and independent living
8. Improve the educational results of children with disabilities. 8.1 Performance on assessments. The percentage of children with disabilities who are proficient in reading, math, and other academic areas, based on NAEP and State assessments will increase.

8.2 School completion. The percentage of children with disabilities exiting school who graduate with a diploma or a certificates will increase; and the percentage of children with disabilities leaving school who drop out will decrease. Of students with disabilities ages 14 through 21 who are known to have left school 52% graduated with a regular diploma in the 1994-95 school year, 63% graduated with a regular diploma or certificate of completion and, 34% dropped out.

8.1 NAEP state data reported to public, 1999.

8.2 State-reported data on diplomas, certifications, and drop-outs, 1996; Bureau of Labor Statistics, National Longitudinal Survey Youth, 1996.

• Ensure that States include strategies in their State Improvement Grant plans to improve performance on assessments.

• Ensure that students with disabilities are appropriately included in NAEP.

• Conduct research, provide technical assistance, and disseminate information on instructing children with disabilities, including practices in the areas of reading and math.

• Support professional development to provide teachers with the skills and knowledge they needed to instruct children with disabilities, including instruction in reading and math.

• Ensure that children with disabilities benefit from the America Reads initiative.

9. Improve participation in postsecondary education and employment. 9.1 Postsecondary education. The percentage of students with disabilities going on to four-year colleges and two-year community colleges and technical schools will increase. The National Longitudinal Transition Study (NLTS) reported that 13.9% of youth with disabilities who left high school in the 1985-86 or 1986-87 school years had enrolled in some type of postsecondary school in the year before they were interviewed for the study (summer and fall of 1987), and that 27.7% of youth with disabilities who had been out of school for three to five years had ever attended postsecondary school.

9.2 Employment. The percentage of students with disabilities who are employed within 2 years of leaving school will increase. The NLTS reported that 45.9% of youth with disabilities who left high school in the 1985-86 or 1986-87 school year were employed at the time of the follow-up survey in the summer and fall of 1987.

9.1 Bureau of Labor Statistics, National Longitudinal Survey Youth, 1996.

9.2 Bureau of Labor Statistics, National Longitudinal Survey Youth, 1996.

• Monitor states on transition requirements focusing on facilitating movement to postsecondary education.

• Build School-to-Work systems that result in increased student achievement and opportunities.

• Conduct demonstrations, provide technical assistance, and disseminate information on how to enhance participation in postsecondary education and employment .

• Support professional development activities (including the development of model teacher preparation programs and materials) that provide teachers and others with the skills and knowledge they need to deliver effective school to work transitions or postsecondary education.


Special Education - Infants and Toddlers with Disabilities -- $370,000,000 (FY 99)
Goal: Family and child outcomes are enhanced by early intervention services, and states provide a comprehensive system of early intervention services for infants and toddlers with disabilities and their families.

Objectives

Indicators

Source and Next Update

Strategies

1. All eligible children are identified. 1.1 Total number of children served. The number of eligible infants and toddlers with disabilities being served will increase. Baseline in 1995 was 174,288.

1.2 Birth to one-year olds served. The percentage of infants served under 1 years olds will increase as a proportion of infants and toddlers served. Baseline in 1994 was 0.8% .

1.3 States serving at-risk children. The number of States serving infants and toddlers at risk of developing disabilities will increase. Baseline was 9 states and 1 territory in FY 1996.

1.1 Annual state data reports - Child count data taken as of 12/1 submitted by the States.

1.2 Annual state data reports - child count data taken as of 12/1 submitted by the states and Census Bureau data on the general population 0-3.

1.3 State application review, periodic.

• Conduct demonstration and outreach projects on effective practices for identifying children and families who qualify for services.

• Provide targeted technical assistance and disseminate information on effective "child find" practices, focusing on states that identify and serve low percentages of children and families.

• Convene a panel of experts for purposes of evaluating and recommending ways to bring greater uniformity to the definition of developmental delay.

2. Needs of the child and family are addressed in a timely, comprehensive manner. 2.1 Receipt of all services indicated. The percentage of families receiving all the services identified on the individualized family service plan and the percent of families reporting that their services were coordinated will increase. Baseline to be determined through new research

2.2 Natural settings. The percentage of children primarily receiving services in natural settings appropriate for the age of the child will increase. Baseline was 53% in 1994.

2.3 Family capacity. The percentage of families reporting that early intervention has increased the family's capacity to enhance their child's development will increase. Baseline to be determined through new research.

2.4 Transition experiences. The percentage of families reporting a successful transition (e.g., a transition meeting was held in a timely manner and a plan developed and followed) will increase. Baseline data to be determined through new research.

2.5 Setting of subsequent services. The number of children transitioning to inclusive settings will increase. Timing of new data collection to be determined.

2.1 Office of Special Education Program's (OSEP) Early Intervention Longitudinal Study, 1999.

2.2 State reported data, annual.

2.3 OSEP's Early Intervention Longitudinal Study, 2001.

2.4 OSEP's Early Intervention Longitudinal Study, 2003.

2.5 State reported data (proposed new data element to be collected annually, first data expected in 2002).

• Monitor state practices and state applications to ensure that the child and family receive timely and appropriate, individualized services based on the needs identified in a comprehensive, multidisciplinary assessment.

• Conduct research to identify effective practices for providing and coordinating services in ways that are cost effective, comprehensive and support the family's needs.

• Conduct research, provide technical assistance, and disseminate information on effective home visiting and other practices that increase the family's capacity to care for their children.

• Support and encourage Parent Training and Information Centers (PTIs) and Community Resource Centers in serving families of eligible children from birth to age 3.

• Encourage an emphasis on transition in the state self-assessment process as part of monitoring activities.

• Provide technical assistance and disseminate information on effective transition practices, with particular focus on transitioning children to natural community-based settings.

• Work with the Federal Interagency Coordinating Council to improve transitions into and out of programs that serve children with disabilities and their families.

• Ensure that all OSEP Clearinghouses, where appropriate, provide timely, understandable and useful information to families of eligible children from birth to age 3.

3. Child's functional development is enhanced by early intervention services. 3.1 Functional abilities. Child's functional abilities are increased and sustained. Baseline to be determined through new research. 3.1 OSEP's Early Intervention Longitudinal Study, 2001. • Conduct research to determine short- and long-range child outcomes and to determine how developmentally appropriate practices can be conducted within family friendly models (e.g., Institute on Early Childhood Program Performance Measures).
4. State policy, monitoring and technical assistance promote comprehensive, effective family focused early intervention services. 4.1 Funding sources. The number of States accessing all appropriate sources of funding (Medicaid, Maternal and Child Health Block Grant, state general revenues) will increase (from the number reported in FY 1997).

4.2 State monitoring activities. The number of states that rigorously monitor local implementation of Early Intervention and provide effective technical assistance to service providers on implementation of the requirements of Part C of IDEA will increase. Baseline data available in FY 1998.

4.1 State performance reports, annual.

4.2 Program monitoring, ongoing.

• Conduct research to determine the best models for coordinating funding from multiple sources for comprehensive early intervention/early childhood services.

• Encourage states to share information on effective ways to fund Early Intervention using multiple funding sources.

• Monitor state practices and state applications and take appropriate corrective action to ensure that states carry out their monitoring responsibilities and address technical assistance needs of their service providers.


Special Education Discretionary Program - $290,961,000 (FY 99)
Goal: To link best practices to states, school systems, and families to improve results for infants, toddlers, and children with disabilities.
Objectives Indicators Source and Next Update Strategies
1. Ensure an adequate supply of highly qualified personnel. 1.1 Supply of qualified personnel. An increasing number of states will meet their identified needs for qualified personnel.

1.2 Research-validated effective practices. An increasing percentage of training programs will incorporate research-validated practices into program curricula.

1.3 Personnel employed with certification. An increasing percentage of special education teachers and related services personnel will be certified appropriately.

1.4 Special education training for regular education teachers. An increasing percentage of regular education teachers and community service providers will receive preservice and inservice training in special education and developmentally appropriate practices.

1.5 Effective personnel. An increasing percentage of special and regular education teachers and early intervention personnel will have the knowledge and skills to improve educational results for children with disabilities.

1.1 CSPD / State Improvement reports; State Improvement grant applications, beginning in FY 1998

1.2 Review of funded awards and institutional practices, beginning in FY 1999.

1.3 NCES Schools and Staffing Survey, FY 2000.

1.4 NCES Schools and Staffing Survey, FY 2000.

1.5 Surveys of personnel's sense of self-efficacy, surveys of teachers, parents, and students regarding personnel's knowledge and skills.

• Develop a model computer program for tracking personnel system/demand and make it available to all states.

• Identify research-validated effective practices.

• Add grant selection criteria that promote the use of research-validated effective program content and pedagogy.

• Establish a cooperative agreement to link research-validated practices to personnel preparation and training programs.

• Require State Improvement Grant applications to include current data on regular and special education personnel employed, certification status, and training received.

• Support preparation programs for personnel to work with both children with low-incidence and high-incidence disabilities, to ensure an adequate supply of highly qualified personnel.

• Promote innovative solutions to address the needs for an adequate supply of highly-qualified personnel.

2. Rigorous research, development, demonstration, and innovation responds to critical needs and advances knowledge to improve results for children with disabilities. 2.1 Respond to knowledge gaps. An increasing percentage of IDEA-supported research and demonstration products, including technology products, will respond directly to identified needs of SEAs, LEAs, and direct service providers.

2.2 Ensure quality. An increasing percentage of projects, including technology projects, use rigorous research and evaluation methods.

2.3 Advance knowledge use. An increasing percentage of final research reports documenting activities to advance the use of the knowledge produced are reported. (OSERS)

2.4 Research impact; to be developed.

2.1 Survey of SEAs, LEAs, and others as part of the comprehensive planning process.

2.2 Standing panel's review of grant applications and recommendations for increasing rigor of applications.

2.3 Review and summary of final reports.

• Determine the knowledge and information needs of SEAs, LEAs, and other service providers, and incorporate these needs into Department priorities.

• Fund demonstration projects to apply and validate research findings.

• Incorporate selection criteria into grant applications that emphasize the usability of research knowledge.

• Provide technical assistance (TA), information, and support to grantees and potential consumers of research information on strategies (e.g., improved credibility, visibility, and communicability of research products) to enhance the use of research.

• Use the annual meeting of Office of Special Education Programs (OSEP)-supported researchers to analyze recent advances and continuing gaps in knowledge to respond to stakeholder needs.

• Fund research syntheses as a means to identify best practices.

• Encourage IDEA-supported researchers to submit findings and products to OERI expert panels.

• Increase awareness of researchers supported by IDEA research.

3. Technical Assistance (TA) and information will be coordinated and accessible to parents, teachers, administrators, early intervention personnel, related personnel, and transition personnel and will result in improved practices. 3.1 Customer satisfaction. An increasing percentage of customers will receive TA and information and will report satisfaction with the services received.

3.2 Improving practices. An increasing percentage of customers will use TA and information to improve practices.

3.3 Respond to information needs. An increasing number of TA and information materials will respond to critical needs.

3.4 Use effective practices. An increasing number of TA and information products and events will promote effective practices in curricula, policies, and services and are based on validated research.

3.1 Surveys of recipients and potential recipients of TA and information.

3.2 Surveys of TA and information recipients, including SEAs, LEAs, and other service providers.

3.3 Surveys to document content of TA activities.

3.4 Surveys to document content of TA activities.

• Determine the TA and information needs of SEAs, LEAs, and other customers and incorporate these needs into Department priorities.

• Incorporate conditions into grant announcements that ensure TA and knowledge competencies and promote emphasis on effective practices in curriculum policies and services.

• Assess alternative TA and dissemination approaches and identify effective strategies that respond to customer needs.

• Provide training to TA providers and disseminators to improve their practices.

• Assess existing models of TA and information to identify effective strategies for increasing research use.

• Provide TA and training to OSEP network of TA providers on effective strategies for increasing the use of research.

• Develop coordinated, collaborative strategies with other ED-funded providers of TA and information.

4. Local education agencies and early intervention programs implement program innovations and improvements. 4.1 LEAs and community-based programs implement innovation and improvement efforts. An increasing percentage of LEAs and community-based programs will indicate that they have implemented innovations, validated practices, and improved their programs in order to improve the results of children with disabilities. 4.1 Surveys of LEAs and community-based programs on the type of innovations, including supporting evidence. • Assess alternative TA approaches and identify effective strategies that respond to the needs of LEAs and community-based providers.

• Provide TA and training on models and strategies for effective practices to OSEP network of TA providers.

5. State systems of education and early intervention for infants, toddlers, and children with disabilities are reformed and improved. 5.1 Development of accountability systems. The number of states with accountability systems in place to track the progress of infants, toddlers, and children with disabilities will increase.

5.2 Inclusion in statewide assessments. All students with disabilities will be included in statewide assessment systems.

5.3 State Improvement Grants. By 1999, all states will have submitted a competitive application for the State Improvement Grant program.

5.1 Review of State Improvement Plans, beginning FY 1998

5.2 Review of State Improvement Plans.

5.3 Review of State Improvement Plans.

• Provide TA and information to states to use in developing and implementing their State Improvement Plans.

• Promote partnerships among state and local agencies and organizations to ensure that the needs of children with disabilities and their families are met.

• Conduct research on accommodations that allow children with disabilities to participate in assessments and on developing alternative assessments.

• Provide TA and information on accommodations and alternative assessments.

6. Families receive the information and training that they need to increase their participation in their child's education. 6.1 Families receiving information and training. An increasing number of families will report satisfaction with the information and training they receive about rights, protections, effective practices, and related issues. 6.1 Surveys of families' satisfaction with information services. • Promote coordination among providers of TA and information, both OSEP-supported and other Department providers.

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