Striving Readers Comprehensive Literacy State Grant Program Public Input Meeting
Doing What Works
Doing What Works is a website dedicated to assisting teachers in the implementation of effective educational practices. The Doing What Works website contains practice guides developed by the Department's Institute of Education Sciences that evaluate research on the effectiveness of teaching practices described in the guides.
The website also contains examples of possible ways this research may be used, but not necessarily the only ways to implement these teaching practices. The examples provided on the Doing What Works website – including any product names included in materials from schools – should not be construed as an endorsement by the U.S. Department of Education of any products, programs, or curricula. For additional information please visit http:dww.ed.gov.
What Works Clearinghouse
The What Works Clearinghouse (WWC) (http://ies.ed.gov/ncee/wwc/) offers a range of publications that evaluate research on early childhood education interventions designed for use with 3- to 5-year-old children.
These products and strategies aim to develop competencies associated with school readiness, including language, literacy, math, and cognition WWC has reviewed topics focusing on early childhood education (ECE) interventions (curricula and practices, as defined below) designed for use in center-based settings with 3- to 5-year-old children who are not yet in kindergarten or children who are in preschool, with a primary focus on cognitive and language competencies associated with school readiness (language, literacy, math, and cognition). The list of all Early Childhood Intervention Reports is available at http://ies.ed.gov/ncee/wwc/reports/topic.aspx?tid=13.
The What Works Clearinghouse published an IES Practice Guide in 2008 titled Improving Adolescent Literacy: Effective Classroom and Intervention Practices. The guide presents specific and coherent evidence-based recommendations that educators can use to improve literacy levels among adolescents in upper elementary, middle, and high schools. The What Works Clearinghouse site also includes a rating of research on adolescent literacy interventions. http://ies.ed.gov/ncee/wwc/publications/practiceguides/.
The Institute of Education Sciences, What Works Clearinghouse (WWC) provides resources on identifying, implementing, and evaluating research-based education programs, including:
- Identifying and Implementing Educational Practices Supported by Rigorous Evidence: A User Friendly Guide (December 2003)
- Random Assignment in Program Evaluation and Intervention Research: Questions and Answers (June 2003)
- How to Solicit Rigorous Evaluations of Mathematics and Science Partnership (MSP) Projects: A User-Friendly Guide for MSP State Coordinators (May 2005)
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In addition, the WWC website offers a registry of individuals and organizations who have self-identified themselves to be available as third party evaluators. Applicants may use this registry or seek other third-party evaluators to assist them in designing evaluations that meet the requirements in the grant solicitation.
The WWC Help Desk offers practical, easy-to-use tools to advance rigorous evaluations of education interventions.
Profiles of Comprehensive Literacy Plans
Formula grants were awarded to State Education Agencies (SEAs) and other entities to establish or support a Literacy Team with expertise in literacy development and education for children from birth to grade 12 to assist in developing a comprehensive literacy plan aligned with their system-wide academic content standards to advance pre-literacy, reading and writing skills of children and youth.
Forty-seven SEAs, the District of Columbia, the Bureau of Indian Education, Virgin Islands, American Samoa, Guam and Mariana Islands each developed a Comprehensive Literacy Plan.* To view the Comprehensive Literacy Plans, please click here.
* Plans developed with SRCL discretionary or set-Aside grant funds.
Evaluation and Reports
The Advancing Literacy subprogram of Carnegie’s National Program was created in 2003 after an extensive review revealed that the education community faces a difficult challenge in enabling all middle and high school students to attain proficiency in reading and writing. The Advancing Literacy program was charged with the daunting task of advancing literacy by affecting policy, practice and research. In 2009 the Council on Advancing Literacy authored Time to Act; Reading in the Disciplines: The Challenges of Adolescent Literacy; Adolescent Literacy Development in Out of School Time: A Practitioner’s Guide; Measure for Measure: A Critical Consumer’s Guide to Reading Comprehension Assessments for Adolescents; Adolescent Literacy Programs: Costs of Implementation; and Adolescent Literacy and Textbooks: An Annotated Bibliography.
National Early Literacy Panel
In January 2009, the National Institute for Literacy released findings from the much-anticipated report, Developing Early Literacy: Report of the National Early Literacy Panel, A Scientific Synthesis of Early Literacy Development and Implications for Intervention. The National Early Literacy Panel's (NELP) report serves as the basis of several powerful, research-based recommendations to the early childhood community – educators, caregivers, Head Start providers, and parents – on promoting the foundational skills of life-long literacy.
In 2002, the National Institute for Literacy convened the nine-member National Early Literacy Panel in consultation with The National Center for Family Literacy. The effort was also supported by the U.S. Departments of Education and Health and Human Services. Developing Early Literacy bridges a large gap in the early-literacy research knowledge base. By synthesizing research on language, literacy, and communication, the report clearly identifies which critical early skills or abilities and proven instructional practices are precursors of later literacy achievement. It provides important clues and insights into emergent literacy from birth through age 5 and points the way for future literacy research and scientific inquiry. http://www.nifl.gov/nifl/publications/pdf/NELPReport09.pdf.
National Evaluation of Early Reading First
The No Child Left Behind Act mandated an independent national evaluation of the ERF program and required a final report to Congress. The final evaluation report was released in May 2007. The evaluation was coordinated by the Department’s Institute of Education Sciences and it assessed the impact of the program on children’s literacy skills as well as the instructional content and practices in preschool classrooms. Using a quasi-experimental design, the study found that the program had a positive impact on children's print and letter knowledge, but not on phonological awareness or oral language. The evaluation also found that the program had positive impacts on aspects of the classroom environment and teacher practices that are intended to support the development of language and literacy skills. http://ies.ed.gov/ncee/pubs/20074007/index.asp.
National Reading Panel
The National Reading Panel (NRP) reviewed more than 100,000 studies on reading and identified five components essential to a child's ability to learn to read: phonics, phonemic awareness, fluency, vocabulary, and comprehension. NRP's findings and their analysis and discussion of these five areas of reading instruction are published in Reading First: The Research Building Blocks for Teaching Children to Read. Additional information is available on the NRP's publications page.
- Put Reading First: The Research Building Blocks for Teaching Children to Read is designed for classroom teachers. It describes the findings of the NRP and provides analysis and discussion in five areas of reading instruction. The publication is also available in a PDF version.
- The speeches presented at the White House Summit on Early Childhood Cognitive Development, July 26-27, 2001
RELATED ASSOCIATIONS AND ORGANIZATIONS
The Center for Applied Linguistics is providing technical assistance on reading instruction for English language learners
Often called "The Nation's Report Card," the National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) is the only nationally representative, continuing assessment of what America's students know and can do in various subject areas, including reading. As a congressionally mandated project of the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) within the U.S. Department of Education, NAEP provides a comprehensive measure of students' learning at critical junctures in their school experience.
The Alliance for Excellent Education is a national policy, research and advocacy organization acting on behalf of at-risk, low-performing secondary school students. The Alliance's Adolescent Literacy Initiative website includes news articles, research reports, and other recent information on adolescent literacy.
The Alliance's Reading Next Report outlines a vision for action and research in Middle and High School literacy.
The National Governors' Association's publication, Reading to Achieve: A Governor's Guide to Adolescent Literacy Report (2005), examines the literacy crisis facing America. The guide highlights several State-based programs to improve reading achievement, raise high school graduation rates, increase the value of the high school diploma, and close the achievement gap.
NASBE's, publication, State Actions to Improve Adolescent Literacy (2009), summarizes the extent and challenges of the adolescent literacy crisis. It then describes the NASBE State Adolescent Literacy Network’s work to address these challenges. An earlier publication, Reading at Risk: How States Can Respond to the Crisis in Adolescent Literacy (2006), provides ideas and strategies to help States develop more effective and comprehensive adolescent literacy policies.
NASSP's report, Creating a Culture of Literacy: A Guide for Middle and High School Principals (2005), is designed to help school leaders use research on best literacy practices to create a well-defined intervention plan that will improve the literacy and long-range academic success of students.
The Advancing Literacy subprogram of Carnegie's National Program was created in 2003 after an extensive review revealed that the education community faces a difficult challenge in enabling all middle and high school students to attain proficiency in reading and writing.
The Advancing Literacy program was charged with the daunting task of advancing literacy by affecting policy, practice and research. In 2009 the Council on Advancing Literacy authored Time to Act; Reading in the Disciplines: The Challenges of Adolescent Literacy; Adolescent Literacy Development in Out of School Time: A Practitioner's Guide; Measure for Measure: A Critical Consumer’s Guide to Reading Comprehension Assessments for Adolescents; Adolescent Literacy Programs: Costs of Implementation; and Adolescent Literacy and Textbooks: An Annotated Bibliography.
Related Department of Education Programs
Aims to raise middle and high school students' literacy levels in Title I-eligible schools with significant numbers of students reading below grade-levels and build a strong, scientific research base for identifying and replicating strategies that improve adolescent literacy skills. Striving Readers projects, funded in 2009, include a supplemental literacy intervention targeted to students reading significantly below grade level; and a strong experimental evaluation component.
The Striving Readers project, funded in 2006, include a supplemental literacy intervention targeted to students reading significantly below grade level; a school-wide literacy program for improving student literacy in all disciplines (2006 cohort); and a strong experimental evaluation component. http://www2.ed.gov/programs/strivingreaders/index.html
Expanding the Reach
Expanding the Reach (ETR) is a professional development program designed to improve the reading practices of K-3 teachers in Title I low-performing schools; schools that have failed to achieve Adequate Yearly Progress (AYP) under No Child Left Behind. A pilot project that utilizes an innovative professional development delivery model, ETR offers a customized blend of teacher training and technical assistance services in scientifically based reading research (SBRR) to district and school staff operating schools that have not received Reading First funding.
In 2004, the project was piloted in 19 schools in the states of Massachusetts, Tennessee, and Washington. In 2008, the project has been expanded to include three additional states: Arkansas, Arizona, and New York.
Three nationally-acclaimed scholars and SBRR experts oversee the selection and organization of the reading content and provide timely professional development to participating schools and districts. They are: Dr. Anne Cunningham, Dr. Timothy Shanahan, and Dr. Dorothy Strickland. DTI Associates, Inc.
A Kratos Company directs the national ETR leadership team, in partnership with the National Center for Family Literacy and its cadre of technical assistance specialists providing the technical assistance, and The Westchester Institute conducting the external evaluation.
A Senior Reading Specialist, DTI’s Stephanie Hamilton supervises six Technical Assistance Specialists who provide direct on-site technical assistance to all participating schools. The team has extensive experience in the implementation of No Child Left Behind programs, in general, and SBRR practices, in particular at the national, state, and local levels. http://etr.haverstick.biz/projectoverview.aspx
Early Reading First
The Early Reading First grant program supports the development of early childhood centers of excellence that focus on all areas of development, especially on the early language, cognitive, and pre-reading skills that prepare children for continued school success and that serve primarily children from low-income families. Grants are designed to help early childhood centers improve their programs, by creating centers of excellence that provide preschool-age children with language and cognitive skills, and an early reading foundation.
Funds must be used to; enhance children's language, cognitive, and early reading skills through professional development for teachers; provide early language and reading development and instructional materials as developed from scientifically based reading research; provide preschool-age children with cognitive learning opportunities in high quality language and literature-rich environments; use screening assessments to effectively identify preschool children who may be at risk for reading failure; and improve existing early childhood programs by integrating scientifically based reading research into all aspects of the program (including instructional materials, teaching strategies, curricula, parent engagement, and professional development). www.ed.gov/programs/earlyreading
Through Reading First, states and districts receive support to apply scientifically based reading research—and the proven instructional and assessment tools consistent with this research—to ensure that all children learn to read well by the end of third grade. The program provides formula grants to states that submit an approved application. SEAs award subgrants to eligible LEAs on a competitive basis. SEAs fund those proposals that show the most promise for raising student achievement and for successful implementation of reading instruction, particularly at the classroom level.
Only programs that are founded on scientifically based reading research are eligible for funding through Reading First. Funds are allocated to states according to the proportion of children age 5 to 17 who reside within the state and who are from families with incomes below the poverty line.
The Department is authorized to reserve 0.5 percent of Reading First funds for awards to the outlying areas (American Samoa, Guam, the Northern Mariana Islands, and the U.S. Virgin Islands) and 0.5 percent to be awarded to the Bureau of Indian Affairs. The Department also is authorized to reserve up to 2.5 percent for national activities and program evaluation and $5 million for information dissemination activities. http://www.ed.gov/programs/readingfirst/index.html
The following information represents a small sample of the scientifically based research and resources available. The information is not exhaustive, and the Department will add other relevant research and resources in the future.
These resources are provided for the reader's convenience, and are intended merely to be examples of resources that may be useful in relation to the Striving Readers Comprehensive Literacy program. There are many other relevant resources that may be helpful as well, and any mentioned here are just a few of the options available on relevant subjects. Their inclusion does not reflect their relative importance nor is it intended as an endorsement or recommendation by the U.S. Department of Education (Department) of any products, author, publisher, supplier, services, or views that are mentioned. In addition, their inclusion is not intended to mandate, direct, or control grantees’ specific instructional content, academic achievement system and assessments, curriculum, or program of instruction.