Native Hawaiian Education

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Fiscal Year 2007 Grant Awards and Abstracts

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  1. The Institute for Native Pacific Education and Culture S362A070006 (Kapolei)
  2. Ke Kula O Samuel M Kamakau S362A070008 (Kaneohe)
  3. University of Hawaii at Hilo S362A070010200 (Hilo)
  4. Partners In Development Foundation S362A070020 (Honolulu)
  5. Partners In Development Foundation S362A0700212040 (Honolulu)
  6. College Connections Hawaii S362A070031 (Honolulu)
  7. Pacific American Foundation S362A070035 (Honolulu)
  8. Pacific American Foundation S362A07003633 (Honolulu)
  9. Keiki O Ka Aina Family Learning Center S362A0700473030 (Honolulu)

1. The Institute for Native Pacific Education and Culture S362A070006 (Kapolei)

Kulia I Ka Pono: A Model for Professional Development in Early Childhood Education

Project Objectives and Activities: Kulia I Ka Pono will improve educational outcomes and increase capacity-building efforts in Native Hawaiian communities through the development and implementation of a comprehensive professional development program for prospective and practicing early childhood educators in Native Hawaiian communities. The project will address academic and best-practice standards, prepare participants for education-related careers in Hawaii, and link to enhanced pedagogy and positive learning outcomes in children. There are five objectives: (1) to develop a state-wide comprehensive professional development program for indigenous early childhood educators in rural, Native Hawaiian communities; (2) to recruit 45 participants and implement the program in 15 early childhood sites on 3 islands; (3) to assess learning and career outcomes for 45 adult participants; (4) to assess learning outcomes for 300 children at participating sites; and (5) to disseminate results locally and nationally.

Priorities Addressed: This proposal addresses two competitive priorities—(1) the needs of at-risk children and youth, and (2) the needs in fields or disciplines in which Native Hawaiians are underemployed.

Proposed Project Outcomes: There are eight well-defined and measurable outcomes proposed by this project: (1) a professional development model that incorporates academic degree preparation, specialized training in early childhood, and leadership development and that is linked to enhanced pedagogy and positive learning outcomes in children will be developed; (2) at least 45 prospective and/or practicing early childhood educators in Native Hawaiian communities will be recruited to participate in the training program; (3) 15 Native Hawaiian participants pursuing their baccalaureate degree in early childhood education will receive tuition scholarships each year; (4) 90% of Native Hawaiian scholarship recipients will demonstrate academic progress towards degree completion; (5) 90% of all participants will: increase their theoretical and content knowledge in early childhood education, investigate how pedagogy is linked to children’s learning outcomes, receive specialized training in model preschools and child care centers located in their community, and receive leadership training in job-related skills; (6) 90% of all children at participating sites will be assessed on at least one of three child development instruments; (7) 60% of children preparing for kindergarten at participating sites will meet the majority of benchmarks for school readiness; and (8) 60% of children preparing for kindergarten at participating sites will participate in a transition-to-kindergarten program.

Number of Native Hawaiians Served: At least 45 adults and 300 children from four predominantly Native Hawaiian rural communities throughout the State of Hawai`i will be served by the project each year (n=345 participants). Kulia I Ka Pono is a cohort model and as such, intends to recruit and retain 45 prospective and current early childhood practitioners throughout the course of three years. However, as participants exit the program—e.g., graduate from a degree program (adults) or transition to kindergarten (children)—more adults and children will be recruited to participate.

Number and Location of Proposed Sites: There will be a fifteen project sites located in four communities on three islands: Nanakuli and Wai`anae (`Oahu), Hilo (Hawai`i), and Kaunakakai (Molokai). The sites were chosen because a large proportion of at-risk Native Hawaiian children reside there.

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2. Ke Kula O Samuel M Kamakau S362A070008 (Kaneohe)

Ke Kula o Samuel M. Kamakau (Kamakau), a K-12 Laboratory Public Charter School is proposing project Hookahua (To lay the foundation). The goal of Hookahua is to "Increase student achievement through the vertical alignment of curriculum and the Hawaiian Language." Kamakau will, over the next three years, design and implement a “stair-cased” curriculum through the Standards-Based Change (SBC) process for its K-12 public school students. In its first year, the focus will be on reading and literacy proficiency in both the English and Hawaiian Languages (competitive preference a and d). Math and Science will be added over the next two years. Individual student achievement will be tracked over the life of the project and beyond. The SBC process is a nine-step “to do” list that is designed to help schools develop and implement curriculum and assessment tools for improving student achievement through standards. Further details of the nine steps are provided under Quality of project design and services.

Project Objectives and Outcomes. Objective 1: Create a staircase or spiral culturally appropriate standards-based curriculum in which students receive well organized, coordinated instruction that enables them to make consistent progress as they move up the grades.

YR1 Outcome 1: Complete SBC process for READING proficiency.
YR2 Outcome 1: Complete SBC process for MATH proficiency.
YR3 Outcome 1: Complete SBC process for SCIENCE proficiency.
- 1 - KE KULA O SAMUEL M KAMAKAU PROJECT HOOKAHUA PROJECT ABSTRACT

Objective 2: Develop and implement a program for meaningful Hawaiian Language attainment of students that supports the staircase curriculum. YR1 Outcome: Identification of the key Hawaiian Language vocabulary and patterns at each grade level as related to READING proficiency. YR2 Outcome: Identification of the key Hawaiian Language vocabulary and patterns at each grade level as related to MATH proficiency. YR3 Outcome: Identification of the key Hawaiian Language vocabulary and patterns at each grade level as related to SCIENCE proficiency.

Objective 3: Focus Teacher Professional Development around quality curriculum implementation. YR1 Outcome: Teachers will increase their ability to teach READING.
YR2 Outcome: Teachers will increase their ability to teach MATH.
YR3 Outcome: Teachers will increase their ability to teach SCIENCE.
Immediate Target Population: The target population is the students at Kamakau. At the start of this project, the projected enrollment is one-hundred twelve (112) native Hawaiian students. The secondary target is the 1500 students in the Hawaii Department of Education’s Hawaiian Language Instruction Program.
Hookahua will be housed at Kamakau’s school campus for design and implementation.

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3. University of Hawaii at Hilo S362A070010200 (Hilo)

The goal of the Olelo Ola Oral Language Proficiency Project is to create a comprehensive system of services for the foundational grades of K-3 to foster highly literate and orally proficient students in Hawaiian Language Immersion Program (HLIP) schools. The lack of such a systemic effort in the area of Hawaiian oral proficiency standards represents a long-standing and critical weakness for the HLIP. The Olelo Ola Project is designed to vigorously address this weakness. Olelo Ola encompasses oral language proficiency research, the development of assessment tools, the creation of Hawaiian language curricula and educational resources for the classroomand the home, as well as preservice and inservice teacher training. Fifteen HLIP elementary schools (100% of HLIP schools in the state) with 45 teachers serving 809 K-3 students on 5 islands will be invited to participate in the project within the next three years. There are five objectives proposed to achieve this goal as displayed below:

1. To investigate current research on oral language development and proficiency that benefits Hawaiian language immersion students in grades K-3.
2. To develop assessment resources and curricula that support Hawaiian oral languagedevelopment and proficiency for K-3 HLIP students.
3. To conduct ongoing assessment of the Hawaiian language oral proficiency of K-3 HLIP students by expanding and adapting research.
4. To strengthen the oral language proficiency of K-3 HLIP students by providing teacherpreservice and inservice training.
5. To support families of K-3 HLIP students, and other interested community members, in developing Hawaiian language oral proficiency and literacy skills within the home environment.

Proposed project outcomes include:
Increased K-3 HLIP student oral proficiency levels. A related rise in literacy achievement (in both Hawaiian and English) as international immersion research indicates that oracy and literacy abilities are interdependent and transferable across languages. Increased HLIP teacher oral proficiency, professional knowledge, and teaching skills to foster continual oral proficiency growth in students. Numerous curriculum resources including digitized oral media, 30 original book titles in Hawaiian, and a K-3 illustrated all Hawaiian language dictionary with appropriate examples derived from an early HLIP reader corpus study. Oral language support and resources for the families of HLIP students resulting in progress of a critical HLIP goal–the revitalization of the Hawaiian language in the community beyond the classroom Significant NHEA authorized activities to be addressed by the Olelo Ola project include:
(1)Hawaiian language curriculum development, (2) the support of literacy development in grades K- 3, (3) the delivery of preservice and inservice teacher training, (3) the provision of Hawaiian language family literacy (and oracy) support services, and (4) research and evaluation activities related to this innovative program.Applicable competitive preference priorities include: (d) “The use of the Hawaiian language in instruction”, (b) “The needs of at risk children and youth”, and (a) “Beginning reading and literacy among students in kindergarten through third grade.”

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4. Partners In Development Foundation S362A070020 (Honolulu)

Pursuant to the U.S. Department of Education solicitation, CDFA 84.362A, The Partners in Development Foundation, a private, non-profit foundation dedicated to the social, economic, and educational improvement of the Hawaiian people submits a proposal for funding entitled “The Ka Pa`alana Traveling Preschool and Homeless Outreach.” This proposal addresses Competitive Preference Priority B – the needs of at-risk children and Youth and D – The use of the Hawaiian language in instruction. It’s currently estimated that there are 1,000-4,000 homeless on the Leeward coast of O`ahu. Of which 20% are estimated to be children ages birth to five. The Ka Pa`alana Program’s goal is to serve this fragile population through a mobile preschool outreach designed to transition families into emergency shelters and to offer a center-based preschool and family literacy services at two emergency shelters that will better prepare at-risk Native Hawaiian families for success.
The overall goal of this program is to prepare homeless Native Hawaiian families for success by breaking the “culture of poverty” and empowering the family through a quality culturally-relevant education program. We will reach this goal via the following objectives:

1. Continue and expand the services of the “first contact” mobile preschool and comprehensive homeless outreach program known as the “Malama Mobile” at Leeward coast beaches that are heavily populated with homeless Native Hawaiian Families.

2. Expand the nine month Ka Pa`alana pilot by creating a four hour a day, four day a week preschool at the Hope for a New Beginning shelter and continue the two hour a day, two day a week preschool at the Kaiaulu shelter. This program will cognitively, socially and emotionally prepare homeless Native Hawaiian preschool-aged children for success in formal education.

3. Create and implement an adult parenting, vocational and educational training program at the Hope shelter that will prepare homeless Native Hawaiian families for success.

4. Report all findings of the three year mobile preschool homeless beach outreach, shelter preschool and family literacy program to be made available to the Hawai`i Department of Education and the DHS to better equip these agencies in assisting homeless Native Hawaiian families at emergency and transitional shelters.

The Hope for a New Beginning shelter can accommodate 300 people living in the shelter, which includes 60 families with young children. Currently, 56 families with children ages birth to five live in the shelter. 75% are Native Hawaiian. The Kaiaulu shelter, which recently began operating in April 2007, can also accommodate 300 people. Thus far, approximately 275 people (which includes about 65 families with children ages birth to five) have moved in, of which 75% are Native Hawaiian. We expect to serve a total of 80-100 children and 100-120 adult caregivers annually at the shelter sites and serve conservatively 250-300 children and 250-3500 adults at beaches and beach parks via Malama Mobile.
Our expected outcomes for homeless families participating in our program are:

1. 90% of preschool-aged children and their caregivers will become acclimated to a preschool and adult learning setting.

2. 75% of the preschool-aged children living in emergency shelters will be better prepared for formal school, with increased social, emotional, cognitive, fine and gross motor skills.

3. 70% of the participating parents will report decreased apathy towards their child’s education and will see themselves as “front-line” teachers in the family.

4. 60% of the parents involved will benefit socially, emotionally, economically, through an adult literacy program focusing on education, parenting, life, job, and vocational trainings skills that will improve the overall wellness of the family.

5. Improving and increasing by 100% the educational and wellness opportunities for homeless preschool-aged children by providing essential life needs such as food, clothing, education and basic preschool services, through a mobile preschool outreach.

6. Improving the quality of life for homeless families living on the beach and beach parks by assisting local service providers in transitioning families into emergency shelters.

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5. Partners In Development Foundation S362A0700212040 (Honolulu)

Pursuant to the U.S. Department of Education solicitation, CDFA 84.362A, Partners in Development (PID), a private, non-profit foundation dedicated to the social, economic, and educational improvement of the Hawaiian people submits a proposal for funding entitled, "’Ike Ea: A Proposal to Teach Hands-On and Activity Based Wireless and Electronics Curricula to Native Hawaiian Families." This proposal addresses Competitive Preference Priority B – the Needs of At-risk children and Youth and C – Programs to address the needs in fields or disciplines in which Native Hawaiians are underemployed; and both Authorized Activities 6. – “The development of academic and vocational curricula to address the needs of Native Hawaiian children and adults, including curriculum materials in the Hawaiian language and mathematics and science curricula that incorporate Native Hawaiian tradition and culture; and 7. Part b). “Professional development activities for educators, including-- b. In-service programs to improve the ability of teachers who teach in schools with concentrations of Native Hawaiian students to meet those students' unique needs. This proposal is in collaboration with the University of Hawaii College of Engineering (UHCE), the Hawaii Center for Advanced Communication (HCAC), and the Partners in Development Tech Together Program (TTP).

Our objectives are to effect a systemic change in the education of at risk Native Hawaiian late elementary and middle school children in the area of physical science relating to technology, electronics and engineering; to integrate their families and their community into the process of learning science and technology at school and empower them to continue to learn at home; and to provide teacher training for Native Hawaiian science and math teachers that delivers a template for integrating standards-based science and math requirements with hands-on electronics, utilization of wireless capabilities through laboratory activities and lessons. We will be serving fifth, seventh and eighth grade classrooms in middle and multi-level school sites in predominantly Native Hawaiian communities on the island of O’ahu: Kane’ohe and Waimanalo (Windward O’ahu), Nanakuli, Wai’anae, Kalaeloa and Kapolei (Leeward O’ahu), Papakolea (in urban Honolulu); as well as serving students and conducting workshops for teachers on neighboring islands at these grade levels at sites in predominantly Native Hawaiian communities on the islands of Hawai’i and Moloka’i: Kohala in West Hawai’i), Laupahoehoe , Honoka’a, Waimea, Kea’au and Pahoa, (in East Hawai’i) and Kaunakakai and Kualapu’u on the island of Moloka’i. We will target nine schools in Year one and fourteen school sites each year in Years two and three. The total number of Native Hawaiian students ranges from 27% to 54% of the total school population for the selected schools. The total number of students, their families and community members impacted will be approximately 8,000 and the total number of science and math teachers impacted will be approximately 140.

Our expected outcomes are that students and teachers will be able to demonstrate through testing, acquired knowledge in science and math and technology, specifically electromagnetic theory and wireless technology, its relevance to Native Hawaiians, and its practical use. We will quantify the percentage of students who connect with supportive community members and are given guidance in developing a place to learn and practice scientific study. We will quantify the percentage of families that are able to complete projects with their students and the changes in perception regarding their students’ interest in science, technology, engineering and math (STEM).

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6. College Connections Hawaii S362A070031 (Honolulu)

Hawaiian Undergraduate Initiatives

In the State of Hawai‘i, Native Hawaiians have some of the lowest educational attainment levels of any ethnic group. To address this problem, College Connections Hawai‘i launched the Native Hawaiian Scholars Program (NHSP) in 2005 to prepare Native Hawaiian teens to succeed in high school and prepare for college. Now that many of the NHSP participants are starting college, they face new problems common to other Hawaiian students and which threaten to undo the progress made so far. College Connections Hawai‘i is now proposing an essential partner program, the "Hawaiian Undergraduate Initiative" or HUI, which is designed to provide both financial and academic support to help students succeed in college and graduate.

The HUI project is an innovative program that enhances educational services for Native Hawaiian college students. As proposed, the project also specifically addresses two of the competitive preference priorities, by working with at-risk Native Hawaiian youth, and by helping them to stay in school and continue on to higher education. HUI also addresses the needs in fields or disciplines where Native Hawaiians are underemployed, by helping Hawaiian students finish college and move toward every career which requires a college or graduate degree: medicine, law, education, technical fields and the many other professional areas in which Hawaiians are desperately underrepresented.

Project objectives and related activities for HUI include providing financial support to participants, including providing scholarships and funding to defray costs of transportation and child care, as well as training in basic financial literacy. Other objectives include providing academic support through tutoring and preparation classes for college placement tests. Anticipated outcomes are that participants have their college financial need met, that they complete a training course in financial literacy, that participants score well on the Compass placement exam and place into credit-level college course, that they achieve GPAs of 2.5 or better and earn credit on pace to graduate from college in four years.

The participant population is made up of 500 Native Hawaiian students from around the state, who are now enrolled in undergraduate programs. Most HUI participants will be current or previous participants in NHSP, though all services provided through the new grant will supplement (not supplant) those in the partner program. Services will be provided at more than 20 different locations on five islands, reaching students at most colleges in the state. Together, these two programs create synergies that are vital to enabling Native Hawaiian students to succeed in college and prepare for the careers and futures that have eluded many Hawaiians for so long.

Goal 2: Provide academic support that enables students to succeed in college
Objectives   Outcomes
2.1 Matriculating undergraduate participants will place into credit-level courses in English and math   80% of participants will earn a passing score on Compass placement exam in English and math by the time they enter college.
2.2 Participants in remedial (non-credit) courses will move into credit-level courses   70% of participants in remedial courses will transition to credit-level courses within one (1) semester of starting tutoring.
2.3 Participants will maintain GPA sufficient to keep their financial aid from all sources   The average cumulative GPA for participants will be 2.5 or greater by the end of year 1.
2.4 Participants will make timely progress toward completing their degrees   11% of students will be on schedule to complete a bachelor’s degree in 4 years, by the end of year 1.
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7. Pacific American Foundation S362A070035 (Honolulu)

AKAMAI Alpha

Project Objectives and Activities: AKAMAI Alpha will meet the educational needs of Native Hawaiians through the development and implementation of a culture-based financial analyst training program that addresses academic and industry standards, that increases participant interest, experience, and excellence in finance, and that prepares them for high-earning careers in the business world. There are four objectives: (1) to develop the 5-year curriculum for a culture-based financial analyst training program that supplements accredited baccalaureate programs in business administration; (2) to recruit 60 Native Hawaiian student participants and 4 instructors and field test the training program curriculum; and (3) to assess learning and career outcomes for both participants and instructors.

Priorities Addressed: This proposal addresses one competitive priorities—"The needs in fields or disciplines in which Native Hawaiians are underemployed."

Proposed Project Outcomes: There are six well-defined and measurable outcomes proposed by this project: (1) applied finance curricula that addresses industry standards and academic rigor, that incorporates cultural values and learning styles, and that leads to training in finance jobs will be developed for high school seniors and undergraduates; (2) at least 60 Native Hawaiian high school or community college participants will be recruited to participate and at least 4 college instructors will be trained to implement the culture-based financial analyst-training program; (3) 90% of participants will increase their knowledge of and skills in financial management and in other business fields and will apply for and enroll in a four-year university with an accredited business program; (4) 75% of participants will pursue a baccalaureate degree in finance or other business-related field; (5) 100% of participating instructors will report improved knowledge, skills, and abilities in teaching the curricula; and (6) applied finance curricula will be institutionalized at a 4-year university with an accredited business program.

Number of Native Hawaiians Served: At least 4 adults and 60 youth from predominantly Native Hawaiian communities on Oahu will be served by the project each year (n=64 participants).

AKAMAI Alpha

is a curriculum-development project that will pilot-test the curriculum with 64 participants, including instructors and students.

Number and Location of Proposed Sites: The project will be located on the island of `Oahu and will target recruiting efforts at all public high schools (24) and community colleges (4) on `Oahu.

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8. Pacific American Foundation S362A07003633 (Honolulu)

Ho`ala Hou: An Indigenous Model for Family-School-Community Partnerships

Project Objectives and Activities: Ho`ala Hou will meet the educational needs of Native Hawaiian youth from at-risk communities through the development and implementation of a culture-based parent involvement program that incorporates best practices in family-school-community partnerships, that is student-centered, and that focuses on post-secondary education plans and attainment. There are four objectives: (1) to develop parent involvement program model for indigenous communities and recruit students, parents, and facilitators; (2) to train facilitators and pilot-test program; (3) to assess learning outcomes for students, parents, and facilitators to; and (4) to disseminate results locally and nationally.

Priorities Addressed: This proposal addresses one competitive priority—“The needs of at-risk children and youth.”

Proposed Project Outcomes: There are 8 well-defined and measurable outcomes proposed by this project: (1) a parent involvement program that is research-based, culture-based, and student-centered will be developed for Native Hawaiian families of students in elementary through high school; (2) at least 10 facilitators will be trained as parent involvement facilitators in three schools; (3) 90% of students will develop transition and/or personalized college and career development plans and report a high level of satisfaction with the program; (4) 75% of students will improve on measures of self-esteem, goal-setting, school engagement, and academic achievement; increase their knowledge of and decrease their engagement in risky behaviors (alcohol use, antisocial behaviors); and apply for and enroll in a four-year or two-year college; (5) 90% of parents will report improved knowledge of their child’s postsecondary aspirations, the college application and enrollment process, and sources of financial aid, report qualitative gains in knowledge about positive parenting, community resources, communication strategies, and report a high level of satisfaction with the program; (6) 75% of parents will report positive changes in their attitudes toward and satisfaction with their child’s school; (7) 90% of facilitators will report improved knowledge, skills, and abilities in facilitating parent involvement activities and report a high level of satisfaction with the program; and (8) at least one paper presentation, one article in a professional journal, and monthly e-newsletters will be posted on PAF website.

Number of Native Hawaiians Served: At least 200 adolescents and their parents and 10 adult facilitators from predominantly Native Hawaiian communities on Windward Oahu will be served by the project each year (n=210 participants). Ho`ala Hou is a parent-involvement project that will pilot-test the program model with 210 participants, including facilitators, students, and their parents.

Number and Location of Proposed Sites: The project will be located on the island of `Oahu and will target recruiting efforts at all 3 schools in the Windward district: Castle High School, King Intermediate School, and Puohala Elementary.

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9. Keiki O Ka Aina Family Learning Center S362A0700473030 (Honolulu)

Community Alliances for Research and Education (C.A.R.E.)

Keiki O Ka Aina Family Learning Centers (KOKA), a Native Hawaiian non-profit serving the needs of the Hawaiian community for 10+ years, proposes the (C.A.R.E.) Project to address problems identified in our communities: Lack of Research-Based Early Education Opportunities; Lack of Cultural Competency in Curriculum; Lack of Skills in Schools and Families to Address Social-Economic Needs of Children; Lack of Rigorous Scientific-Based Research. C.A.R.E. will focus on innovative, research-proven activities that support the following grant priorities:

Priority A: Beginning reading and literacy in kindergarten through third grade: 1. Activity: Create an inclusive Infant/Toddler program in Kalihi; 48 served. 2. Activity: Expand and supplement the award winning Parents As Teachers Program (prenatal-three) in Hawaiian communities on Maui and O’ahu; 420 served. Outcomes 1 & 2: Children enter preschool ready for success in reading and literacy having parents with skills to support their academic progress. Parents have access to research-based early education opportunities; 3. Activity: Create and supplement 11 Hawaiian/English Parent Participation Preschools in schools, communities, and prison sites with Hawaiian culture and Social-Emotional Training; 1800 served. 4. Activity: Open immersion preschool on DOE campus of Hawaiian Language Immersion K-12 School. Outcomes 3 & 4: Children enter kindergarten ready for success in reading and literacy, having parents with skills to support their academic progress. Hawaiian parents will have access to research-based early education opportunities. 5. Activity: Create and supplement HIPPY home instruction curriculum model for ages 3-5; 900 served. 6. Activity: Expand Kulia I Ka Nu’u pilot study of new Hawaiian home-instruction curriculum with evaluation comparing results to established HIPPY program; 900 served. Outcomes 5 & 6: Children, whose parents are unable to send them to preschool, enter kindergarten ready for success in reading and literacy, having parents with skills to support their academic progress. Hawaiian parents will have access to research-based early education opportunities. Priority B: The needs of at-risk children: Activities conducted in Hawaiian communities with low socio-economic indicators, low education levels, and high substance abuse: home-less shelters, public housing, residential drug rehab centers, prisons, and DOE pregnant teen programs. Activities 1-6 (above) meet this priority. Outcomes: Children at-risk for school failure will enter kindergarten ready for success in reading and literacy, having parents with the skills to continue supporting their academic progress. Priority C: The needs in fields where Native Hawaiians are underemployed: We employ Hawaiian’s from the communities we serve and give them intensive, on-going training in early childhood and professional development. 1. Activity: Provide early education and cultural training for teachers and parents at our Culture and Education Training Facility. 2000 served. Outcomes: Hawaiians employed in a field in which they are currently underemployed, and children taught by teachers and parents confident in working with them within the context of Hawaiian culture and using culturally competent curriculum. Priority D: Use of Hawaiian language in instruction: Activities 3, 4, and 6 include three Parent Participation Preschools conducted in Hawaiian, a Hawaiian Immersion preschool, and Kulia I Ka Nu’u Curriculum incorporating Hawaiian language instruction. We will serve over 5,500 total parent/caregivers and children and 200 teachers in 30 Hawaiian community sites on Oahu and Maui at an average cost of $500.00 per participant annually. All programs are supported by experienced kupuna (elder) specialists with strong Hawaiian cultural values and educational backgrounds. We collaborate with over 30 partners to form community alliances, and will share our research results, and evaluations with Native Hawaiian agencies and others.

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