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  1. FAQs for Innovative Approaches to Literacy
  2. Program Overview: A-1. What is the authorizing statute for the Innovative Approaches to Literacy (IAL) program?
  3. Program Overview: A-2. What is the purpose of the IAL program?
  4. Eligibility Requirements: B-1 Who is eligible to apply for an IAL grant?
  5. Eligibility Requirements: B-2. Can an individual school receive an IAL grant?
  6. Eligibility Requirements: B-3.  If an eligible consortium applies for an IAL grant, who is the applicant and what are the responsibilities of members of the consortium?
  7. Eligibility Requirements: B-4. Are private schools eligible to apply for an IAL grant?
  8. IAL PROGRAM DEFINITIONS: C-1. What are the definitions and characteristics of a qualified national not-for-profit organization?
  9. IAL PROGRAM DEFINITIONS: C-2. What is the definition of "persistently lowest-achieving schools?
  10. IAL PROGRAMS AND LITERACY EDUCATION: D-1: Are IAL goals consistent with State academic content standards?
  11. IAL PROGRAMS AND LITERACY EDUCATION: D-2. Are IAL projects to be developed to specifically address English and language arts as opposed to other academic content-areas?
  12. IAL PROGRAMS AND LITERACY EDUCATION: D-3. In what ways can technology and materials conforming to universal design for learning (UDL) enhance conventional literacy instruction?
  13. IAL PROGRAMS AND LITERACY EDUCATION: D-4. What are some elements of a high quality plan for use of technology that can be used by school libraries? 
  14. FISCAL RESPONSIBILITIES FOR IAL PROJECTS: E-1. What are allowable costs under the IAL program?
  15. FISCAL RESPONSIBILITIES FOR IAL PROJECTS: E-2. Must an applicant selected for an IAL grant have an approved indirect cost rate to charge indirect costs to programs?
  16. FISCAL RESPONSIBILITIES FOR IAL PROJECTS: E-3. May IAL funds be used to pay stipends, bonuses, scholarships, and direct teacher support such as salaries for specialists or new teachers?
  17. FISCAL RESPONSIBILITIES FOR IAL PROJECTS: E-4. Can IAL funds be used for paying rent?
  18. FISCAL RESPONSIBILITIES FOR IAL PROJECTS: E-5. Can IAL funds be used for construction?
  19. FISCAL RESPONSIBILITIES FOR IAL PROJECTS: E-6. Is there a cost share requirement for the IAL program?
  20. FISCAL RESPONSIBILITIES FOR IAL PROJECTS: E-7. May applicants include the cost of food in their budgets?
  21. PROGRAM REVIEW AND EVALUATION: F-1. Are grantees required to submit an annual performance report?
  22. PROGRAM REVIEW AND EVALUATION: F-2. Must an applicant use an outside evaluator?
  23. APPLICATION SUBMISSION: G-1. Is IAL subject to Executive Order 12372?
  24. APPLICATION SUBMISSION: G-2. Must submission of charts and tables be double-spaced in an IAL grant application?
  25. APPLICATION SUBMISSION: G-3.  Is there a page limit for the application?
  26. APPLICATION SUBMISSION: G-4. What is the required font for this application submission?
  27. ABSOLUTE AND COMPETITIVE PRIORITIES: H-1. What is an absolute priority? What is a competitive priority?
  28. ABSOLUTE AND COMPETITIVE PRIORITIES: H-2. How many absolute and competitive priorities are in the IAL NIA?
  29. ABSOLUTE AND COMPETITIVE PRIORITIES: H-3. How many points will be awarded under the competitive priorities?
  30. ABSOLUTE AND COMPETITIVE PRIORITIES: H-4. How would an LEA qualify for additional points under the rural competitive preference?
  31. SELECTION CRITERIA: I-1. On what authority are the selection criteria based?
  32. SELECTION CRITERIA: I-2. How will applications be reviewed?
  33. SELECTION CRITERIA: I-3. Will an applicant receive its scores and reviewer comments after the competitions are completed?
  34. SELECTION CRITERIA: I-4. Will the reviewers be asked to read every part of each application?
  35. SELECTION CRITERIA: 1-5 Does a grantee’s past performance count as part of the overall selection process?
  36. APPLICABLE REGULATIONS: J-1. What are the applicable regulations that apply to the IAL program?

1. FAQs for Innovative Approaches to Literacy

The Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) for the Innovative Approaches to Literacy (IAL) program were developed to assist potential applicants in developing high-quality proposals.  The FAQs developed for the IAL program provide applicants with the U.S. Department of Education’s (Department) interpretation of various statutory provisions carried out under the legislative authority of the Fund for Improvement of Education (FIE), Title V, Part D, Subpart 1, Sections 5411 through 5413 of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 (ESEA), as amended (20 U.S.C. 7243–7243b) as well as other requirements governing the fiscal year (FY) 2012 IAL program competition. The FAQs do not create any rights for, or confer any rights on, any person or institutions.

The Department will provide additional or updated program guidance, as necessary, on its IAL Web site, http://www2.ed.gov/programs/innovapproaches-literacy/index.html. If you have further questions that are not answered here, please e-mail David.Miller@ed.gov, or Melvin.Graham@ed.gov, or Peter.Eldridge@ed.gov

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2. Program Overview: A-1. What is the authorizing statute for the Innovative Approaches to Literacy (IAL) program?

The IAL program is carried out under the legislative authority of the Fund for Improvement of Education (FIE), Title V, Part D, Subpart 1, Sections 5411 through 5413 of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965, as amen ded (ESEA) (20 U.S.C. 7243–7243b).

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3. Program Overview: A-2. What is the purpose of the IAL program?

The IAL program supports high-quality programs designed to develop and improve literacy skills for children and students from birth through 12th grade within the attendance boundaries of high need local educational agencies (LEAs) and schools.  The U.S. Department of Education (Department) intends to support innovative programs that promote early literacy for young children, motivate older children to read, and increase student achievement by using school libraries, distributing free books to children and their families, and offering high-quality literacy activities.

Many schools and districts across the Nation do not have school libraries that deliver high-quality literacy programming to children and their families.  Additionally, many schools do not have qualified library media specialists and library facilities.  Where facilities do exist, they are often under resourced and lack adequate books and other materials.  In many communities, high-need children and students have limited access to appropriate age- and grade-level reading material in their homes.

The IAL program supports the implementation of high-quality plans for childhood literacy activities and book distribution efforts that are supported by at least one study that meets the definition of scientifically valid research (as defined in the Notice Inviting Applications (NIA).

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4. Eligibility Requirements: B-1 Who is eligible to apply for an IAL grant?

Eligible applicants for IAL grants are (1) a high-need LEA (as defined in the NIA); (2) a national not-for-profit organization (as defined in the NIA) that serves children and students within the attendance boundaries of a high-need LEA; (3) a consortium of one or more national not-for-profit organizations that serve children and students within the attendance boundaries of one or more high-need LEAs; or (4) a consortium of high-need LEAs.

A national not-for-profit organization that applies for an IAL grant, either as a single entity applicant or as part of a consortium, is required to submit documentation of its nonprofit 501(c)(3) status verification with the grant application.In order to demonstrate that charter schools and State-administered schools are LEAs, applicants must include documentation from their State educational agency (SEA) confirming LEA status.  The IAL eligibility form is available in the IAL instructions package and on our Web site at www.ed.gov/programs/ial/eligibility.html.

Note:  Subject to the submission of sufficient applications that meet the requirements of the NIA, the Department will award no less than 50 percent of the funds to LEAs (on behalf of school libraries) for high-quality school library projects that increase access to a wide range of print and electronic resources and provide learning opportunities to all students.  The Secretary reserves the right to fund a sufficient number of high-quality literacy and book distribution projects from LEAs and national not-for-profit organizations. 

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5. Eligibility Requirements: B-2. Can an individual school receive an IAL grant?

No. Individual schools are not eligible to apply for a grant.  See B-1 for a definition of eligible entities.

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6. Eligibility Requirements: B-3.  If an eligible consortium applies for an IAL grant, who is the applicant and what are the responsibilities of members of the consortium?

The members of eligible consortia are one or more national not-for-profit organizations that serve children and students within the attendance boundaries of one or more high-need LEAs; or one or more high-need LEAs.  The members of each consortium shall either 1) designate one member of the group to apply for the grant; or 2) establish a separate, eligible legal entity to apply for the grant. If the consortium decides to designate one member of the group to apply for the grant, the applicant for the group is the grantee and is legally responsible for: (a) the use of all grant funds; (b) ensuring that the project is carried out by the group in accordance with Federal requirements; and (c) ensuring that indirect cost funds are determined as required under Education Department General Administrative Regulations (EDGAR) at 34 CFR § 75.564(e).  Members of the consortium shall also enter into an agreement that details the activities each member plans to perform and that binds each member to every statement and assurance made by the applicant in the application.  The applicant shall submit the agreement with its application (See EDGAR at 34 CFR § 75.127-129 found at http://www.ed.gov/policy/fund/reg/edgarReg/edgar.html).

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7. Eligibility Requirements: B-4. Are private schools eligible to apply for an IAL grant?

No, private schools are not eligible to apply for this grant nor are they eligible to receive services through an eligible LEA for this program.

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8. IAL PROGRAM DEFINITIONS: C-1. What are the definitions and characteristics of a qualified national not-for-profit organization?

A national not-for-profit is an agency, organization, or institution owned and operated by one or more corporations or associations whose net earnings do not benefit, and cannot lawfully benefit, any private shareholder or entity.  In addition, it means, for the purposes of this program, an organization of national scope that is supported by staff or affiliates at the State and local levels, who may include volunteers, and that has a demonstrated history of effectively developing and implementing literacy activities.

To demonstrate that an organization is a national not-for-profit educational entity, factors include, but are not necessarily limited to: 

  1. whether the organization's charter, articles of incorporation, or other documents establishing the organization describe its mission as being national in scope;
  2. proof that the organization has staff or affiliates at the State and local levels, who may include volunteers, as evidenced by the geographic scope of its activities;
  3. legal evidence of a current 501(c) (3) (not-for-profit) designation by the Internal
    Revenue Service; 
  4. a certified copy of the applicant's certificate of incorporation or similar document if   
    it clearly establishes the not-for-profit status of the applicant; or
  5. a statement from a State taxing body or the State Attorney General certifying that:
    (i) The organization is a not-for-profit organization operating within the State; and
    (ii) No part of its net earnings may lawfully benefit any private shareholder or individual.
    C-2. What is the definition of "persistently lowest-achieving schools?"
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9. IAL PROGRAM DEFINITIONS: C-2. What is the definition of "persistently lowest-achieving schools?

Persistently lowest-achieving schools means, as determined by the State:

  • any Title I school in improvement, corrective action, or restructuring that (a) is among the lowest-achieving five percent of Title I schools in improvement, corrective action, or restructuring or the lowest-achieving five Title I schools in improvement, corrective action, or restructuring in the State, whichever number of schools is greater; or  (b) is a high school that has had a graduation rate as defined in 34 CFR § 200.19(b) that is less than 60 percent over a number of years; and
  • any secondary school that is eligible for, but does not receive, Title I funds that: (a) is among the lowest-achieving five percent of secondary schools or the lowest-achieving five secondary schools in the State that are eligible for, but do not receive, Title I funds, whichever number of schools is greater; or (b) is a high school that has had a graduation rate as defined in 34 CFR § 200.19(b) that is less than 60 percent over a number of years. 

To identify the persistently lowest achieving schools, a State must take into account both the academic achievement of the “all students” group in a school in terms of proficiency on the State’s assessments under section 1111(b)(3) of the ESEA in reading/language arts and mathematics combined and the school’s lack of progress on those assessments over a number of years in the “all students” group.

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10. IAL PROGRAMS AND LITERACY EDUCATION: D-1: Are IAL goals consistent with State academic content standards?

Yes.  Projects developed under the IAL programs should be designed to improve the quality of elementary and secondary education at the State and local levels, and to help all children meet challenging State college- and career-ready academic content standards. 

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11. IAL PROGRAMS AND LITERACY EDUCATION: D-2. Are IAL projects to be developed to specifically address English and language arts as opposed to other academic content-areas?

We recognize the need to strengthen literacy development across academic content areas to effectively support reading and writing.  The focus of the IAL program is to develop and improve literacy skills for children and students from birth through 12th grade within the attendance boundaries of high-need LEAs and schools. Applicants may propose developed projects that include many strategies to improve and enhance literacy development from birth to 12th grade across academic content areas.  The NIA provides an overview of what types of programs the Secretary believes strengthen literacy development in children.

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12. IAL PROGRAMS AND LITERACY EDUCATION: D-3. In what ways can technology and materials conforming to universal design for learning (UDL) enhance conventional literacy instruction?

UDL provides a scientifically valid framework for guiding educational practice that –

  1. provides flexibility in the ways information is presented, in the ways students respond or demonstrate knowledge and skills, and in the ways students are engaged; and
  2.  reduces barriers in instruction, provides appropriate accommodations, supports, and challenges, and maintains high achievement expectations for all students, including students with disabilities and students who are English learners. 
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13. IAL PROGRAMS AND LITERACY EDUCATION: D-4. What are some elements of a high quality plan for use of technology that can be used by school libraries? 

A high quality plan for use of technology might include a description of an applicant's specific goals for using technology to improve student achievement or improve reading readiness in children.  Such a plan would have a strong rationale and clear goals for using technology that are aligned with the IAL program’s purpose. 

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14. FISCAL RESPONSIBILITIES FOR IAL PROJECTS: E-1. What are allowable costs under the IAL program?

Costs must be allowable, allocable, reasonable, and necessary according to the Federal cost principles found in Office of Management and Budget (OMB) Circular A-87, OMB Circular A-122, the statute, and governing regulations. A cost is allocable to a grant award if it is consistently treated like other costs incurred for the same purpose in like circumstances and is considered to be reasonable, in its nature and amount, by a prudent person under the circumstances prevailing at the time the decision is made to incur the cost.  Generally, IAL grant funds can be used to support high-quality programs designed to develop and improve literacy skills for children and students from birth through 12th grade.  This includes innovative programs that promote early literacy for young children and motivate older children to read and programs that increase student achievement by using school libraries, distributing free books to children and their families, and offering high-quality literacy activities. (See Office of Management and Budget (OMB) Circular A-87 (Cost Principles for State, Local, and Indian Tribal Governments) and Circular A-122 (Cost Principles for Non-Profit Organizations).

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15. FISCAL RESPONSIBILITIES FOR IAL PROJECTS: E-2. Must an applicant selected for an IAL grant have an approved indirect cost rate to charge indirect costs to programs?

Yes.  ED requires grantees charging indirect costs to programs to obtain a Federally-approved indirect cost rate. An applicant that does not have an approved indirect cost rate at the time it is selected for an IAL grant award may request approval from the Department for a temporary indirect cost rate of 10% of the expended amount of the entity’s direct salaries and wages.  However, a grantee must submit an indirect cost rate proposal to its cognizant agency within 90 days of receiving its grant award notice.

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16. FISCAL RESPONSIBILITIES FOR IAL PROJECTS: E-3. May IAL funds be used to pay stipends, bonuses, scholarships, and direct teacher support such as salaries for specialists or new teachers?

These expenses generally would be allowable if necessary and reasonable to accomplish the program's and project’s objectives, consistent with applicable OMB Circulars and EDGAR.

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17. FISCAL RESPONSIBILITIES FOR IAL PROJECTS: E-4. Can IAL funds be used for paying rent?

Applicants should focus their proposed activities on high-quality literacy activities. To the extent that the leasing of some additional space is necessary and reasonable for meeting the purposes and objectives of the program, rent generally would be an allowable cost. (See the applicable OMB Cost Circulars at http://www.whitehouse.gov/OMB/grants/index.html.)

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18. FISCAL RESPONSIBILITIES FOR IAL PROJECTS: E-5. Can IAL funds be used for construction?

No. A grantee may not use its grant for acquisition of real property or for construction unless specifically permitted by the authorizing statute or implementing regulations for the program. 
(See EDGAR at 34 CFR § 75.533) (applicants can access EDGAR provisions on the Department's website at http://www.ed.gov/policy/fund/reg/edgarReg/edgar.html)).

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19. FISCAL RESPONSIBILITIES FOR IAL PROJECTS: E-6. Is there a cost share requirement for the IAL program?

No. The IAL program does not have a cost share requirement; however, applicants are encouraged to leverage grant resources by aligning other Federal, State, local, and private funds to support the project or by engaging in meaningful partnerships to increase the potential effectiveness and sustainability of the project.

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20. FISCAL RESPONSIBILITIES FOR IAL PROJECTS: E-7. May applicants include the cost of food in their budgets?

No. Costs for entertainment (including food) are not allowable costs. (See OMB Circular A-87 (Cost Principles for State, Local, and Indian Tribal Governments) and Circular A-122 (Cost Principles for Non-Profit Organizations.)

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21. PROGRAM REVIEW AND EVALUATION: F-1. Are grantees required to submit an annual performance report?

Yes.  Under the Government Performance and Results Act of 1993 (GPRA), the Department has developed performance measures to determine the overall effectiveness of programs funded with Federal dollars, including the IAL program. The GPRA performance measures for the IAL program are:

  1. The percentage of 4-year old children participating in the project who achieve significant gains in oral language skills;
  2.   The percentage of participating 3rd grade students who meet or exceed proficiency on State reading or language arts assessments under section 1111(b)(3) of the ESEA;
  3. The percentage of participating 8th grade students who meet or exceed proficiency on State reading or language arts assessments under section 1111(b)(3) of the ESEA; and
  4. The percentage of participating high school students who meet or exceed proficiency on State reading or language arts assessments under section 1111(b)(3) of the ESEA.

All grantees will be expected to submit an annual performance report that includes data addressing these performance measures, to the extent that they apply to the grantee’s project.  For example, a grantee that proposes to improve the quality of school library services for high school students would only be required to report data for Measure #4.

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22. PROGRAM REVIEW AND EVALUATION: F-2. Must an applicant use an outside evaluator?

Applications submitted for the IAL program will be evaluated based on the quality of the project evaluation (See the IAL application package, Selection Criterion F).  As such, applicants will be responsible for carrying out the evaluation plan/activities that are outlined in the application package. 

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23. APPLICATION SUBMISSION: G-1. Is IAL subject to Executive Order 12372?

Yes.  Executive Order 12372 concerns the Intergovernmental Review of Federal Programs, and, among other things, gives States the opportunity to review and provide comments to Federal agencies on applications for Federal discretionary (competitive) grants.  Applicants can find more details in the Appendix for the Intergovernmental Review of Federal Programs in the IAL application package.

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24. APPLICATION SUBMISSION: G-2. Must submission of charts and tables be double-spaced in an IAL grant application?

Yes. Charts and tables must be prepared in double space format.

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25. APPLICATION SUBMISSION: G-3.  Is there a page limit for the application?

Yes.  The application narrative must be limited to no more than 25 pages.  The application narrative is where the applicant addresses the selection criteria that reviewers use to evaluate the grant application.  The page limit does not apply to the cover sheet; eligibility information; the budget section, including the narrative budget justification; the assurances and certifications; the one-page abstract; the resumes; the bibliography; or the letters of support.  However, the page limit does apply to all of the application narrative section.  Please note reviewers will not read any pages that exceed the page limit.  

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26. APPLICATION SUBMISSION: G-4. What is the required font for this application submission?

A submitted application should use a font size that is either 12 point or larger or no smaller than 10 pitch (characters per inch).  The applicant should be in one of the following fonts:  Times New Roman, Courier, Courier New, or Arial.   An application submitted in any other font (including Times Roman or Arial Narrow) will not be accepted.

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27. ABSOLUTE AND COMPETITIVE PRIORITIES: H-1. What is an absolute priority? What is a competitive priority?
p>Under EDGAR at 34 CFR § 75.105(c)(3), the Secretary may give absolute preference to applications that meet a priority.  For the IAL FY 2012 competition, all applicants must meet the absolute priority established in the NIA.  Applicants that do not meet the absolute priority will not be considered for funding.

Under EDGAR at 34 CFR §75.105(c)(2), the Secretary may award some or all bonus points to an application depending on the extent to which the application meets each competitive priority. These points are in addition to any points the applicant earns under the selection criteria (see 34 CFR §75.200(b)).  

In accordance with the NIA, the maximum number of additional points the Secretary may award to an application depends upon how well the application meets each competitive priority.  Additionally, the Secretary may select an application that meets a priority over an application of comparable merit that does not meet the priority.  Competitive preference priorities are not requirements in that applicants do not need to address them to be considered for funding.  Applications that meet one or more competitive priorities will be awarded additional points. 

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28. ABSOLUTE AND COMPETITIVE PRIORITIES: H-2. How many absolute and competitive priorities are in the IAL NIA?

There is one absolute priority and four competitive priorities in the IAL NIA. For FY 2012, the following absolute priority has been established:

Absolute Priority:  High-quality Plan for innovative approaches to literacy that include book distribution, child literacy activities, or both, and that is supported by at least one study that meets the definition of scientifically valid research (as defined in the NIA).

For the FY 2012 IAL program, the following four competitive priorities have been established: (1) Competitive Preference Priority 1—-Turning Around Persistently Lowest-Achieving Schools (5 points); (2) Competitive Preference Priority 2—-Technology (5 points); (3) Competitive Preference Priority 3- Improving Early Learning Outcomes (5 points); and (4) Competitive Preference Priority 4 – Serving Rural LEAs (5 points). 

Please refer to the NIA under Priorities for more information on absolute and competitive priorities under the IAL program.

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29. ABSOLUTE AND COMPETITIVE PRIORITIES: H-3. How many points will be awarded under the competitive priorities?

An applicant will receive an additional 5 points for an application that meets Competitive Preference Priority 1 or 4, listed in question H-2.  An applicant will receive up to an additional 10 points for an application that meets Competitive Preference Priorities 2 and 3 listed in question H-2. A total of up to 15 additional points may be awarded.

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30. ABSOLUTE AND COMPETITIVE PRIORITIES: H-4. How would an LEA qualify for additional points under the rural competitive preference?

An applicant qualifies for competitive preference points under the rural competitive preference if the applicant’s proposed project is designed to provide high-quality literacy programming, or distribute books, or both, to students served by a rural LEA.   A rural LEA, for the purposes of the IAL program, is an LEA that is eligible under the Small Rural School Achievement program or the Rural and Low-Income School program authorized under Title VI, Part B of the ESEA.  Applicants may determine whether a particular LEA is eligible for these programs by referring to information on the Department’s Web site at http://www2.ed.gov/nclb/freedom/local/reap.html. Proof of eligibility for these programs must be included in the application in order to be considered for the competitive priority.

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31. SELECTION CRITERIA: I-1. On what authority are the selection criteria based?

The selection criteria for this program are from 34 CFR § 75.210 and are listed in the NIA.  The maximum score for all criteria is 100 points.  The maximum possible score for each criterion is indicated in parentheses next to each criterion listed in the selection criteria section of the NIA.

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32. SELECTION CRITERIA: I-2. How will applications be reviewed?

Applications will be reviewed and scored on the selection criteria, and then will be reviewed to determine eligibility under the absolute priority in the NIA.  The Department intends to use independent reviewers from various backgrounds and professions with relevant expertise.  These reviewers will use their professional judgment to evaluate and score each application based on the selection criteria.

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33. SELECTION CRITERIA: I-3. Will an applicant receive its scores and reviewer comments after the competitions are completed?

Yes.  Both funded and unfunded applicants will receive a copy of the technical review forms completed by the peer reviewers on their applications.  Individual reviewer names are deleted from the forms to preserve confidentiality.

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34. SELECTION CRITERIA: I-4. Will the reviewers be asked to read every part of each application?

Yes.  To facilitate the review, the Department encourages applicants to carefully follow the directions in the application package.  Applicants should pay particular attention to the flow of the narrative and correctly label all attachments.

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35. SELECTION CRITERIA: 1-5 Does a grantee’s past performance count as part of the overall selection process?

The Department reminds potential applicants that in reviewing applications in any discretionary grant competition, the Secretary may consider, under EDGAR, 34 CFR § 75.217(d)(3)(ii), the applicant’s past performance and use of funds under a previous grant award.  The Secretary may also consider whether the applicant failed to submit a timely performance report or submitted a report of unacceptable quality.

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36. APPLICABLE REGULATIONS: J-1. What are the applicable regulations that apply to the IAL program?

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Last Modified: 12/10/2012