Seclusion and Restraints
States and Territories Summary

Summary Table of Seclusion and Restraint Statutes, Regulations, Policies and Guidance, by State and Territories

On July 31, 2009, Secretary Duncan sent a letter to the states and territories urging them to develop or review and, if appropriate, revise their state policies and guidelines to ensure that every student in every school under its jurisdiction is safe and protected from being unnecessarily or inappropriately restrained or secluded. He also urged them to publicize these policies and guidelines so that administrators, teachers and parents understand and consent to the limited circumstances under which these techniques may be used; ensure that parents are notified when these interventions do occur; and provide the resources needed to successfully implement the policies and hold school districts accountable for adhering to the guidelines.

Secretary Duncan also encouraged the states and territories to have their revised policies and guidance in place prior to the start of the 2009-2010 school year to help ensure that no child is subjected to the abusive or potentially deadly use of seclusion or restraint in a school. The Office of Elementary and Secondary Education was tasked to work with staff from our regional Comprehensive Centers to contact state offices by August 15, 2009 to discuss the status of each state's efforts with regard to limiting the use of seclusion and restraint to protect students. During this contact, discuussions included relevant state laws, regulations, policies, and guidance that affect the use of seclusion and restraint, and any plans for further development or revisions.

The below table and accompanying document summarizes the state and territorial policies regarding seclusions and restraints that resulted from these discussions in order to share information that will help protect all students.

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Download the state and territories summary document:

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Table of individual state and territorial policies on seclusions and restraints:

Clickable U.S. map, see full  list of text links to states and territories below Michigan Hawaii Alaska West Virginia Delaware Washington D.C. Maryland Maryland New York New Hampshire Maine Hawaii New Jersey Massachusetts Massachusetts Rhode Island Rhode Island Connecticut Connecticut New Hampshire Vermont Vermont Pennsylvania New Jersey Delaware Virginia North Carolina South Carolina Florida Louisiana Georgia Mississippi Alabama Kentucky Ohio Minnesota Wisconsin Indiana Tennessee Illinois Missouri Iowa Arkansas Texas Oklahoma Kansas Nebraska South Dakota Montana Wyoming Colorado New Mexico Utah Arizona California Idaho Oregon Washington North Dakota Nevada

Alabama | Alaska | American Samoa | Arizona | Arkansas | California | Colorado | Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands | Connecticut | Delaware | District of Columbia | Florida | Georgia | Guam | Hawaii | Idaho | Illinois | Indiana | Iowa | Kansas | Kentucky | Louisiana | Maine | Republic of the Marshall Islands | Maryland | Massachusetts | Michigan | Federated States of Micronesia | Minnesota | Mississippi | Missouri | Montana | Nebraska | Nevada | New Hampshire | New Jersey | New Mexico | New York | North Carolina | North Dakota | Ohio | Oklahoma | Oregon | Pennsylvania | Puerto Rico | Republic of Palau | Rhode Island | South Carolina | South Dakota | Tennessee | Texas | Utah | Vermont | Virginia | U.S. Virgin Islands | Washington | West Virginia | Wisconsin | Wyoming |

Seclusion and Restraints Summary Table
State Statutes and Regulations Addressing Seclusion and Restraint Policies and Guidance Addressing Seclusion and Restraint Currently Developing or Revising State Statutes, Regulations, Policies or Guidance
Alabama Please see attached. Please see attached. State is revising all policies; expects draft of new policy (for all students) to be adopted by end of July 2010.
Alaska Please see attached. No policies or guidance addressing seclusion and restraint. State intends to provide guidance; currently collected data on training and resources at the local level.
American Samoa No statute or regulations addressing seclusion and restraint. No policies or guidance addressing seclusion and restraint. Not indicated.
Arizona No state statute or regulations addressing seclusion and restraint. Please see attached. Task force developed to make recommendation of best practice for discipline of students with disabilities.
Arkansas Please see attached. Please see attached. Committee convened to review state statute juvenile justice code regarding restraints to consider applicability to education code. Also plan to review, update and expand seclusion regulation to apply to all students.
California Please see attached. No policies or guidance addressing seclusion and restraint. Not indicated.
Colorado Please see attached. Please see attached. Amendments to current rules, which apply to all students, have been adopted on November 12, 2009.
Northern Mariana Islands No statute or regulations addressing seclusion and restraint. No policies or guidance addressing seclusion and restraint. Not indicated.
Connecticut Please see attached. Please see attached. Preparing state form for districts to submit data on use of seclusion.
Delaware Please see attached. Please see attached. Not indicated.
District of Columbia Please see attached. Please see attached. Not indicated.
Florida Please see attached. Please see attached. State statute and regulations are in development for students with disabilities.
Georgia No state statute or regulations addressing seclusion and restraint. Please see attached. State Board of Education to adopt a final rule in April 2010.
Guam No statute or regulations addressing seclusion and restraint. No policies or guidance addressing seclusion and restraint. Not indicated.
Hawaii Please see attached. Please see attached. Not indicated.
Idaho No state statute or regulations addressing seclusion and restraint. No policies or guidance addressing seclusion and restraint. Task force will begin in September 2009 and submit proposed rule (including all students) to State Board in June 2010.
Illinois Please see attached. Please see attached. Not indicated.
Indiana No state statute or regulations addressing seclusion and restraint. Please see attached. Not indicated.
Iowa Please see attached. Please see attached. Not indicated.
Kansas No state statute or regulations addressing seclusion and restraint. Please see attached. Developing a collection tool for schools to report quarterly seclusion data.
Kentucky No state statute or regulations addressing seclusion and restraint. Please see attached. Restraint and Seclusion Advisory Committee met September 2009 to examine current guidance and practice and make recommendations.
Louisiana No state statute or regulations addressing seclusion and restraint. No policies or guidance addressing seclusion and restraint. Considering developing legislation or policy, or both.
Maine Please see attached. Please see attached. State is reviewing current rule on restraint.
Marshall Islands No statute or regulations addressing seclusion and restraint. No policies or guidance addressing seclusion and restraint. Not indicated.
Maryland Please see attached. Please see attached. Amendments to the September 2003 regulations were approved on August 25, 2009, and became effective October 5, 2009.
Massachusetts Please see attached. Please see attached. Not indicated.
Michigan Please see attached. Please see attached. Not indicated.
Micronesia No statute or regulations addressing seclusion and restraint. No policies or guidance addressing seclusion and restraint. Not indicated.
Minnesota Please see attached. Please see attached. Recently revised statute will be effective in 2011. Additional legislative revisions are possible.
Mississippi No state statute or regulations addressing seclusion and restraint. Please see attached. Plans to develop, review or revise statute, policies or guidelines.
Missouri No state statute or regulations addressing seclusion and restraint. No policies or guidance addressing seclusion and restraint. School districts are required to have policies on restraints by July 2011.
Montana Please see attached. Please see attached. The state is reviewing code and procedures.
Nebraska No state statute or regulations addressing seclusion and restraint. Please see attached. The state is reviewing the inclusion in its regulations of a policy/procedure in the area of seclusion and restraint. Beginning in 2009/2010, districts are to assure that staff training is in place prior to using seclusion and restraints for students with disabilities.
Nevada Please see attached. Please see attached. Revised statute on July 1, 2009 through Assembly Bill 56.
New Hampshire Please see attached. Please see attached. Not indicated.
New Jersey No state statute or regulations addressing seclusion and restraint. No policies or guidance addressing seclusion and restraint. State is developing policy.
New Mexico No state statute or regulations addressing seclusion and restraint. Please see attached. Not indicated.
New York Please see attached. Please see attached. State conducted a comprehensive review of all special education policies in September 2009.
North Carolina Please see attached. Please see attached. Incident data being collected during 2009 school year.
North Dakota Please see attached. Please see attached. Not indicated.
Ohio No state statute or regulations addressing seclusion and restraint. Please see attached. State is forming committee to develop provisions on seclusion and restraints.
Oklahoma No state statute or regulations addressing seclusion and restraint. No policies or guidance addressing seclusion and restraint. Draft guidance was developed for special education students in 2007 to assist districts in developing suitable restraints and seclusion policies at the local level. Draft policy on seclusion and restraint is out for public comment.
Oregon Please see attached. Please see attached. Not indicated.
Pennsylvania Please see attached. Please see attached. State is planning to develop regulations on the use of seclusion.
Puerto Rico No statute or regulations addressing seclusion and restraint. No policies or guidance addressing seclusion and restraint. Not indicated.
Palau No statute or regulations addressing seclusion and restraint. No policies or guidance addressing seclusion and restraint. Not indicated.
Rhode Island Please see attached. No policies or guidance addressing seclusion and restraint. Not indicated.
South Carolina No state statute or regulations addressing seclusion and restraint. Please see attached. Draft guidelines, which apply to all students, have been developed and are in the review process. Data from a survey that was sent to districts to see how many have policies in place are currently being reviewed. Results are expected to be released in mid December 2009.
South Dakota No state statute or regulations addressing seclusion and restraint. No policies or guidance addressing seclusion and restraint. Not indicated.
Tennessee Please see attached. Please see attached. Not indicated.
Texas Please see attached. Please see attached.

State is currently collecting data on use of restraints for students with disabilities from all the districts.

State has developed procedures for students with disabilities.

Utah Please see attached. No policies or guidance addressing seclusion and restraint. State Board of Education Rules require the state to develop, review regularly, and provide to local school boards and charter school governing boards model policies to address disruptive student behavior.
Vermont No state statute or regulations addressing seclusion and restraint. No policies or guidance addressing seclusion and restraint. Since March 2009, several meetings and focus groups have been held to address the issue and move in the direction of legislation.
Virginia Please see attached. Please see attached. Superintendent's memo was issued October 2009 to all local education agencies (LEA) directing the review of state guidelines.
U.S. Virgin Islands No statute or regulations addressing seclusion and restraint. No policies or guidance addressing seclusion and restraint. Draft policy being reviewed by the Policy Review Committee. Adoption of policy is expected in February 2010.
Washington Please see attached. Please see attached. Not indicated.
West Virginia No state statute or regulations addressing seclusion and restraint. Please see attached. Not indicated.
Wisconsin Please see attached. Please see attached. Not indicated.
Wyoming No state statute or regulations addressing seclusion and restraint. No policies or guidance addressing seclusion and restraint. In September 2009, state Special Education Director will propose developing state definitions for seclusion and restraints and state guidance as well as a process for public comment.

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Last Modified: 10/17/2013