Laws & Guidance HIGHER EDUCATION
1998 Amendments to the Higher Education Act of 1965
P.L. 105-244

TITLE VI--INTERNATIONAL EDUCATION PROGRAMS

SEC. 601. INTERNATIONAL AND FOREIGN LANGUAGE STUDIES

Part A of title VI (20 U.S.C. 1121 et seq.) is amended to read as follows:

`PART A--INTERNATIONAL AND FOREIGN LANGUAGE STUDIES

`SEC. 601. FINDINGS AND PURPOSES.

`(a) FINDINGS- Congress finds as follows:

`(1) The security, stability, and economic vitality of the United States in a complex global era depend upon American experts in and citizens knowledgeable about world regions, foreign languages, and international affairs, as well as upon a strong research base in these areas.

`(2) Advances in communications technology and the growth of regional and global problems make knowledge of other countries and the ability to communicate in other languages more essential to the promotion of mutual understanding and cooperation among nations and their peoples.

`(3) Dramatic post-Cold War changes in the world's geopolitical and economic landscapes are creating needs for American expertise and knowledge about a greater diversity of less commonly taught foreign languages and nations of the world.

`(4) Systematic efforts are necessary to enhance the capacity of institutions of higher education in the United States for--

`(A) producing graduates with international and foreign language expertise and knowledge; and

`(B) research regarding such expertise and knowledge.

`(5) Cooperative efforts among the Federal Government, institutions of higher education, and the private sector are necessary to promote the generation and dissemination of information about world regions, foreign languages, and international affairs throughout education, government, business, civic, and nonprofit sectors in the United States.

`(b) PURPOSES- The purposes of this part are--

`(1)(A) to support centers, programs, and fellowships in institutions of higher education in the United States for producing increased numbers of trained personnel and research in foreign languages, area studies, and other international studies;

`(B) to develop a pool of international experts to meet national needs;

`(C) to develop and validate specialized materials and techniques for foreign language acquisition and fluency, emphasizing (but not limited to) the less commonly taught languages;

`(D) to promote access to research and training overseas; and

`(E) to advance the internationalization of a variety of disciplines throughout undergraduate and graduate education;

`(2) to support cooperative efforts promoting access to and the dissemination of international and foreign language knowledge, teaching materials, and research, throughout education, government, business, civic, and nonprofit sectors in the United States, through the use of advanced technologies; and

`(3) to coordinate the programs of the Federal Government in the areas of foreign language, area studies, and other international studies, including professional international affairs education and research.

`SEC. 602. GRADUATE AND UNDERGRADUATE LANGUAGE AND AREA CENTERS AND PROGRAMS.

`(a) NATIONAL LANGUAGE AND AREA CENTERS AND PROGRAMS AUTHORIZED-

`(1) CENTERS AND PROGRAMS-

`(A) IN GENERAL- The Secretary is authorized--

`(i) to make grants to institutions of higher education, or combinations thereof, for the purpose of establishing, strengthening, and operating comprehensive foreign language and area or international studies centers and programs; and

`(ii) to make grants to such institutions or combinations for the purpose of establishing, strengthening, and operating a diverse network of undergraduate foreign language and area or international studies centers and programs.

`(B) NATIONAL RESOURCES- The centers and programs referred to in paragraph (1) shall be national resources for--

`(i) teaching of any modern foreign language;

`(ii) instruction in fields needed to provide full understanding of areas, regions, or countries in which such language is commonly used;

`(iii) research and training in international studies, and the international and foreign language aspects of professional and other fields of study; and

`(iv) instruction and research on issues in world affairs that concern one or more countries.

`(2) AUTHORIZED ACTIVITIES- Any such grant may be used to pay all or part of the cost of establishing or operating a center or program, including the cost of--

`(A) teaching and research materials;

`(B) curriculum planning and development;

`(C) establishing and maintaining linkages with overseas institutions of higher education and other organizations that may contribute to the teaching and research of the center or program;

`(D) bringing visiting scholars and faculty to the center to teach or to conduct research;

`(E) professional development of the center's faculty and staff;

`(F) projects conducted in cooperation with other centers addressing themes of world regional, cross-regional, international, or global importance;

`(G) summer institutes in the United States or abroad designed to provide language and area training in the center's field or topic; and

`(H) support for faculty, staff, and student travel in foreign areas, regions, or countries, and for the development and support of educational programs abroad for students.

`(3) GRANTS TO MAINTAIN LIBRARY COLLECTIONS- The Secretary may make grants to centers described in paragraph (1) having important library collections, as determined by the Secretary, for the maintenance of such collections.

`(4) OUTREACH GRANTS AND SUMMER INSTITUTES- The Secretary may make additional grants to centers described in paragraph (1) for any one or more of the following purposes:

`(A) Programs of linkage or outreach between foreign language, area studies, or other international fields, and professional schools and colleges.

`(B) Programs of linkage or outreach with 2- and 4-year colleges and universities.

`(C) Programs of linkage or outreach with departments or agencies of Federal and State governments.

`(D) Programs of linkage or outreach with the news media, business, professional, or trade associations.

`(E) Summer institutes in foreign area, foreign language, and other international fields designed to carry out the programs of linkage and outreach described in subparagraphs (A), (B), (C), and (D).

`(b) GRADUATE FELLOWSHIPS FOR FOREIGN LANGUAGE AND AREA OR INTERNATIONAL STUDIES-

`(1) IN GENERAL- The Secretary is authorized to make grants to institutions of higher education or combinations of such institutions for the purpose of paying stipends to individuals undergoing advanced training in any center or program approved by the Secretary.

`(2) ELIGIBLE STUDENTS- Students receiving stipends described in paragraph (1) shall be individuals who are engaged in an instructional program with stated performance goals for functional foreign language use or in a program developing such performance goals, in combination with area studies, international studies, or the international aspects of a professional studies program, including predissertation level studies, preparation for dissertation research, dissertation research abroad, and dissertation writing.

`(c) SPECIAL RULE WITH RESPECT TO TRAVEL- No funds may be expended under this part for undergraduate travel except in accordance with rules prescribed by the Secretary setting forth policies and procedures to assure that Federal funds made available for such travel are expended as part of a formal program of supervised study.

`(d) ALLOWANCES- Stipends awarded to graduate level recipients may include allowances for dependents and for travel for research and study in the United States and abroad.

`SEC. 603. LANGUAGE RESOURCE CENTERS.

`(a) LANGUAGE RESOURCE CENTERS AUTHORIZED- The Secretary is authorized to make grants to and enter into contracts with institutions of higher education, or combinations of such institutions, for the purpose of establishing, strengthening, and operating a small number of national language resource and training centers, which shall serve as resources to improve the capacity to teach and learn foreign languages effectively.

`(b) AUTHORIZED ACTIVITIES- The activities carried out by the centers described in subsection (a)--

`(1) shall include effective dissemination efforts, whenever appropriate; and

`(2) may include--

`(A) the conduct and dissemination of research on new and improved teaching methods, including the use of advanced educational technology;

`(B) the development and dissemination of new teaching materials reflecting the use of such research in effective teaching strategies;

`(C) the development, application, and dissemination of performance testing appropriate to an educational setting for use as a standard and comparable measurement of skill levels in all languages;

`(D) the training of teachers in the administration and interpretation of performance tests, the use of effective teaching strategies, and the use of new technologies;

`(E) a significant focus on the teaching and learning needs of the less commonly taught languages, including an assessment of the strategic needs of the United States, the determination of ways to meet those needs nationally, and the publication and dissemination of instructional materials in the less commonly taught languages;

`(F) the development and dissemination of materials designed to serve as a resource for foreign language teachers at the elementary and secondary school levels; and

`(G) the operation of intensive summer language institutes to train advanced foreign language students, to provide professional development, and to improve language instruction through preservice and inservice language training for teachers.

`(c) CONDITIONS FOR GRANTS- Grants under this section shall be made on such conditions as the Secretary determines to be necessary to carry out the provisions of this section.

`SEC. 604. UNDERGRADUATE INTERNATIONAL STUDIES AND FOREIGN LANGUAGE PROGRAMS.

`(a) INCENTIVES FOR THE CREATION OF NEW PROGRAMS AND THE STRENGTHENING OF EXISTING PROGRAMS IN UNDERGRADUATE INTERNATIONAL STUDIES AND FOREIGN LANGUAGE PROGRAMS-

`(1) AUTHORITY- The Secretary is authorized to make grants to institutions of higher education, combinations of such institutions, or partnerships between nonprofit educational organizations and institutions of higher education, to assist such institutions, combinations or partnerships in planning, developing, and carrying out programs to improve undergraduate instruction in international studies and foreign languages. Such grants shall be awarded to institutions, combinations or partnerships seeking to create new programs or to strengthen existing programs in foreign languages, area studies, and other international fields.

`(2) USE OF FUNDS- Grants made under this section may be used for Federal share of the cost of projects and activities which are an integral part of such a program, such as--

`(A) planning for the development and expansion of undergraduate programs in international studies and foreign languages;

`(B) teaching, research, curriculum development, faculty training in the United States or abroad, and other related activities, including--

`(i) the expansion of library and teaching resources; and

`(ii) preservice and inservice teacher training;

`(C) expansion of opportunities for learning foreign languages, including less commonly taught languages;

`(D) programs under which foreign teachers and scholars may visit institutions as visiting faculty;

`(E) programs designed to develop or enhance linkages between 2- and 4-year institutions of higher education, or baccalaureate and post-baccalaureate programs or institutions;

`(F) the development of undergraduate educational programs--

`(i) in locations abroad where such opportunities are not otherwise available or that serve students for whom such opportunities are not otherwise available; and

`(ii) that provide courses that are closely related to on-campus foreign language and international curricula;

`(G) the integration of new and continuing education abroad opportunities for undergraduate students into curricula of specific degree programs;

`(H) the development of model programs to enrich or enhance the effectiveness of educational programs abroad, including predeparture and postreturn programs, and the integration of educational programs abroad into the curriculum of the home institution;

`(I) the development of programs designed to integrate professional and technical education with foreign languages, area studies, and other international fields;

`(J) the establishment of linkages overseas with institutions of higher education and organizations that contribute to the educational programs assisted under this subsection;

`(K) the conduct of summer institutes in foreign area, foreign language, and other international fields to provide faculty and curriculum development, including the integration of professional and technical education with foreign area and other international studies, and to provide foreign area and other international knowledge or skills to government personnel or private sector professionals in international activities;

`(L) the development of partnerships between--

`(i) institutions of higher education; and

`(ii) the private sector, government, or elementary and secondary education institutions,

in order to enhance international knowledge and skills; and

`(M) the use of innovative technology to increase access to international education programs.

`(3) NON-FEDERAL SHARE- The non-Federal share of the cost of the programs assisted under this subsection--

`(A) may be provided in cash from the private sector corporations or foundations in an amount equal to one-third of the total cost of the programs assisted under this section; or

`(B) may be provided as an in-cash or in-kind contribution from institutional and noninstitutional funds, including State and private sector corporation or foundation contributions, equal to one-half of the total cost of the programs assisted under this section.

`(4) SPECIAL RULE- The Secretary may waive or reduce the required non-Federal share for institutions that--

`(A) are eligible to receive assistance under part A or B of title III or under title V; and

`(B) have submitted a grant application under this section.

`(5) PRIORITY- In awarding grants under this section, the Secretary shall give priority to applications from institutions of higher education, combinations or partnerships that require entering students to have successfully completed at least 2 years of secondary school foreign language instruction or that require each graduating student to earn 2 years of postsecondary credit in a foreign language (or have demonstrated equivalent competence in the foreign language) or, in the case of a 2-year degree granting institution, offer 2 years of postsecondary credit in a foreign language.

`(6) GRANT CONDITIONS- Grants under this subsection shall be made on such conditions as the Secretary determines to be necessary to carry out this subsection.

`(7) APPLICATION- Each application for assistance under this subsection shall include--

`(A) evidence that the applicant has conducted extensive planning prior to submitting the application;

`(B) an assurance that the faculty and administrators of all relevant departments and programs served by the applicant are involved in ongoing collaboration with regard to achieving the stated objectives of the application;

`(C) an assurance that students at the applicant institutions, as appropriate, will have equal access to, and derive benefits from, the program assisted under this subsection; and

`(D) an assurance that each institution, combination or partnership will use the Federal assistance provided under this subsection to supplement and not supplant non-Federal funds the institution expends for programs to improve undergraduate instruction in international studies and foreign languages.

`(8) EVALUATION- The Secretary may establish requirements for program evaluations and require grant recipients to submit annual reports that evaluate the progress and performance of students participating in programs assisted under this subsection.

`(b) PROGRAMS OF NATIONAL SIGNIFICANCE- The Secretary may also award grants to public and private nonprofit agencies and organizations, including professional and scholarly associations, whenever the Secretary determines such grants will make an especially significant contribution to improving undergraduate international studies and foreign language programs.

`(c) FUNDING SUPPORT- The Secretary may use not more than 10 percent of the total amount appropriated for this part for carrying out the purposes of this section.

`SEC. 605. RESEARCH; STUDIES; ANNUAL REPORT.

`(a) AUTHORIZED ACTIVITIES- The Secretary may, directly or through grants or contracts, conduct research and studies that contribute to achieving the purposes of this part. Such research and studies may include--

`(1) studies and surveys to determine needs for increased or improved instruction in foreign language, area studies, or other international fields, including the demand for foreign language, area, and other international specialists in government, education, and the private sector;

`(2) studies and surveys to assess the utilization of graduates of programs supported under this title by governmental, educational, and private sector organizations and other studies assessing the outcomes and effectiveness of programs so supported;

`(3) evaluation of the extent to which programs assisted under this title that address national needs would not otherwise be offered;

`(4) comparative studies of the effectiveness of strategies to provide international capabilities at institutions of higher education;

`(5) research on more effective methods of providing instruction and achieving competency in foreign languages, area studies, or other international fields;

`(6) the development and publication of specialized materials for use in foreign language, area studies, and other international fields, or for training foreign language, area, and other international specialists;

`(7) studies and surveys of the uses of technology in foreign language, area studies, and international studies programs;

`(8) studies and evaluations of effective practices in the dissemination of international information, materials, research, teaching strategies, and testing techniques throughout the education community, including elementary and secondary schools; and

`(9) the application of performance tests and standards across all areas of foreign language instruction and classroom use.

`(b) ANNUAL REPORT- The Secretary shall prepare, publish, and announce an annual report listing the books and research materials produced with assistance under this section.

`SEC. 606. TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATION AND COOPERATION FOR FOREIGN INFORMATION ACCESS.

`(a) AUTHORITY- The Secretary is authorized to make grants to institutions of higher education, public or nonprofit private libraries, or consortia of such institutions or libraries, to develop innovative techniques or programs using new electronic technologies to collect, organize, preserve, and widely disseminate information on world regions and countries other than the United States that address our Nation's teaching and research needs in international education and foreign languages.

`(b) AUTHORIZED ACTIVITIES- Grants under this section may be used--

`(1) to facilitate access to or preserve foreign information resources in print or electronic forms;

`(2) to develop new means of immediate, full-text document delivery for information and scholarship from abroad;

`(3) to develop new means of shared electronic access to international data;

`(4) to support collaborative projects of indexing, cataloging, and other means of bibliographic access for scholars to important research materials published or distributed outside the United States;

`(5) to develop methods for the wide dissemination of resources written in non-Roman language alphabets;

`(6) to assist teachers of less commonly taught languages in acquiring, via electronic and other means, materials suitable for classroom use; and

`(7) to promote collaborative technology based projects in foreign languages, area studies, and international studies among grant recipients under this title.

`(c) APPLICATION- Each institution or consortium desiring a grant under this section shall submit an application to the Secretary at such time, in such manner, and accompanied by such information and assurances as the Secretary may reasonably require.

`(d) MATCH REQUIRED- The Federal share of the total cost of carrying out a program supported by a grant under this section shall not be more than 66 2/3 percent. The non-Federal share of such cost may be provided either in-kind or in cash, and may include contributions from private sector corporations or foundations.'.

`SEC. 607. SELECTION OF CERTAIN GRANT RECIPIENTS.

`(a) COMPETITIVE GRANTS- The Secretary shall award grants under section 602 competitively on the basis of criteria that separately, but not less rigorously, evaluates the applications for comprehensive and undergraduate language and area centers and programs.

`(b) SELECTION CRITERIA- The Secretary shall set criteria for grants awarded under section 602 by which a determination of excellence shall be made to meet the differing objectives of graduate and undergraduate institutions.

`(c) EQUITABLE DISTRIBUTION OF GRANTS- The Secretary shall, to the extent practicable, award grants under this part (other than section 602) in such manner as to achieve an equitable distribution of the grant funds throughout the United States, based on the merit of a proposal as determined pursuant to a peer review process involving broadly representative professionals.

`SEC. 608. EQUITABLE DISTRIBUTION OF CERTAIN FUNDS.

`(a) SELECTION CRITERIA- The Secretary shall make excellence the criterion for selection of grants awarded under section 602.

`(b) EQUITABLE DISTRIBUTION- To the extent practicable and consistent with the criterion of excellence, the Secretary shall award grants under this part (other than section 602) in such a manner as will achieve an equitable distribution of funds throughout the United States.

`(c) SUPPORT FOR UNDERGRADUATE EDUCATION- The Secretary shall also award grants under this part in such manner as to ensure that an appropriate portion of the funds appropriated for this part (as determined by the Secretary) are used to support undergraduate education.

`SEC. 609. AMERICAN OVERSEAS RESEARCH CENTERS.

`(a) CENTERS AUTHORIZED- The Secretary is authorized to make grants to and enter into contracts with any American overseas research center that is a consortium of institutions of higher education (hereafter in this section referred to as a `center') to enable such center to promote postgraduate research, exchanges and area studies.

`(b) USE OF GRANTS- Grants made and contracts entered into pursuant to this section may be used to pay all or a portion of the cost of establishing or operating a center or program, including--

`(1) the cost of faculty and staff stipends and salaries;

`(2) the cost of faculty, staff, and student travel;

`(3) the cost of the operation and maintenance of overseas facilities;

`(4) the cost of teaching and research materials;

`(5) the cost of acquisition, maintenance, and preservation of library collections;

`(6) the cost of bringing visiting scholars and faculty to a center to teach or to conduct research;

`(7) the cost of organizing and managing conferences; and

`(8) the cost of publication and dissemination of material for the scholarly and general public.

`(c) LIMITATION- The Secretary shall only award grants to and enter into contracts with centers under this section that--

`(1) receive more than 50 percent of their funding from public or private United States sources;

`(2) have a permanent presence in the country in which the center is located; and

`(3) are organizations described in section 501(c)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986 which are exempt from taxation under section 501(a) of such Code.

`(d) DEVELOPMENT GRANTS- The Secretary is authorized to make grants for the establishment of new centers. The grants may be used to fund activities that, within 1 year, will result in the creation of a center described in subsection (c).

`SEC. 610. AUTHORIZATION OF APPROPRIATIONS.

`There are authorized to be appropriated to carry out this part $80,000,000 for fiscal year 1999, and such sums as may be necessary for each of the 4 succeeding fiscal years.'.

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