The Norfolk Public School District's School Management and Resource Teams (SMART) program was funded by a joint grant from the U.S. Departments of Education and Justice. The Norfolk effort establishes a team for each school and decentralizes responsibility for discipline to those teams. Part of the SMART program includes an Incident Profiling System (IPS) that is a simple-to-use, computerized tracking system available in each of Norfolk's schools. Data are collected on the nature of the violation, location of the incident, and the disciplinary action taken. Student names are not included. Using this data, school teams identify three primary patterns of disruption within their school, report to the district level, and work together to recommend solutions for improvement.
Benefits. This school district believes that the SMART process has contributed to a steady decline in the number of incidents as well as in the seriousness of the incidents. The data collected in IPS allow month-by-month tracking and year-over-year comparison to be done quickly. The data also become the basis for interacting with other agencies like the juvenile courts and have resulted in targeted police monitoring of truancy. During parent conferences, teachers can access a student's record in the IPS (which also includes class schedules, test scores, and grade point average), allowing for a holistic approach to student progress.
More Information: Bill Delk
Director of Pupil Personnel
Dade County Public Schools
Dade County Public Schools use a computer system called School Police Automated Reporting (SPAR) to record incidents of violence involving students. Once an incident occurs on a school campus, on school-sponsored transportation, or even off-campus, the school notifies the Dade County Public Schools (DCPS) Police Department. The DCPS Police enters the incident information into the SPAR system, and a unique SPAR number is assigned. By assigning a SPAR number to each incident of violence, the system links the district's data base for student discipline with that of the local schools' computers. Each school has access to the SPAR number as well as to the information entered, and makes disciplinary decisions. The schools are responsible for updating the system with any relevant information on the incident.
The SPAR system enables teachers and authorized persons to obtain "batch" or profile reports that can identify student demographics and incident details such as number of students involved, type of violation, location of incident, and type of disciplinary action taken. A summary report is submitted annually to the Florida Department of Education.
Benefits. SPAR's ability to produce so many different types of reports aids security personnel and administrators in developing individual school security plans.
More Information: E.O. "Red" McAllister
Chief of Police
Anaheim Union High School District
The Anaheim Union High School District is the designated West Coast Resource Site for school districts interested in implementing the SMART (School Management and Resource Team) program. As part of this program, the Incident Profiling System (IPS), which operates on the school district's computers, is used by each school to record all disciplinary infractions and criminal acts, including law violations and education code violations. The IPS generates reports describing patterns of disruptions and crimes. Data are reviewed by teams at all school sites each month and are used to problem-solve as well as to set goals and determine solutions for the sites. The district's SMART committee reviews the data based on a districtwide concern for monitoring activity and developing prevention strategies. Data are used on a regular basis by site administrators to monitor student behavior and to develop intervention, support, or disciplinary plans.
Benefits. IPS helps the school district to:
Metropolitan Nashville Public Schools
Metropolitan Nashville Public Schools use the Automated Information Management System (AIMS) to record data and create reports on student violations. When an incident of violence occurs in this system, the principal makes a verbal report by telephone to the school's director of administrative services. From the director's office a typewritten account of the incident, called an Infogram, is created to alert the Board of Education about the matter. Eventually, the principal completes a Student Incident Report, which compiles the details and the outcome of the violation. Once the disciplinary action to be taken is determined, secretaries at each school enter actions taken with reason codes into AIMS. School personnel download the information each attendance period into the mainframe, from which printouts of suspension data may be obtained. Based on the information entered into AIMS, various types of reports can be generated. For example, suspension data can be retrieved from AIMS according to school, grade, gender, race, or any other variable already in the system.
More Information: Joseph Anderson
Director of Safety and Security
Detroit Public Schools
The Detroit Public Schools use the Automated Information Management System (AIMS) for processing code of conduct violations that warrant suspension, transfer, or expulsion. Once a student's guilt is established, AIMS assigns a unique identification code to the incident and codes the incident type, location, disciplinary action taken, and any other pertinent information. In addition to reporting all incidents of violence to the Student Code of Conduct Office, serious incidents, which include assaults that require medical attention and those that result in arrest, are also reported to the Public Safety Office. Detroit's system allows school personnel to generate year-to-year comparisons and reports by month, semester, or school year. Reports may also be categorized by district, area, gender, grade level, and school.
Benefits. By keeping a record of students who are in the suspension track, AIMS ensures due process of rights for students and parents. This is important because no student may be transferred out of her or his school without justification and proof from AIMS that all other options and interventions have been exhausted.
A replication of this study, funded by the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) was attached to the NCVS in 1995 and is currently being processed and analyzed. Measures are similar to those included in the 1988 study but provide expanded information on weapons prevalence and use, measures of gang presence and activity, and school characteristics derived from NCES files. The reports should be available in early 1997.