OVERVIEW
Preliminary Overview of Programs and Changes Included in the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001
Archived Information

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Even Start
(Title I, Part B, Subpart 3)

Overview

This program supports family literacy programs that integrate early childhood education, adult education, parenting education, and literacy activities for low-income families, including parents eligible for services under the Adult Education and Family Literacy Act and their children from birth through age 7.

Changes from Current Law

This program was reauthorized in December 2000 as part of the Consolidated Appropriations Act of 2001 (P. L. 106-554), with the following major changes:

  • Research - In years where the appropriation exceeds the amount appropriated for the previous fiscal year, the Secretary is required to reserve $2 million or 50 percent of the excess amount, whichever is less, for the National Institute for Literacy to carry out scientifically based reading research that focuses on adult literacy. In years where the appropriation is equal to or less than the amount appropriated for the previous fiscal year, the Secretary may reserve only what is needed to continue multi-year activities.

  • Statewide Family Literacy Activities - Authorizes $1 million for competitive grants to States for Even Start statewide family literacy initiatives in years when the appropriation increases over the previous year. Prior to this reauthorization, as part of the Reading Excellence Act, the Department was required to reserve $10 million annually for this purpose.

  • Technical Assistance for Family Literacy Services - Adds a provision that allows States to use a portion of program funds to help subgrantees to improve the quality of family literacy services.

  • Staff Qualifications - Requires that, within 4 years, the majority of individuals providing academic instruction in Even Start whose salaries are paid in whole or in part with Even Start funds have an associate's, bachelor's, or graduate degree in a field related to early childhood education, elementary or secondary school education, or adult education, and, if applicable, meet State qualifications requirements for those areas; all new personnel must meet these requirements beginning on the effective date of the reauthorization (12/21/00). In addition, within 4 years, the individual responsible for the local administration of family literacy services must have received training in the operation of a family literacy program, and paraprofessionals who provide support for academic instruction must have a high school diploma or its equivalent.

  • Scientifically Based Reading Research - Requires that instructional programs be based on scientifically based reading research.

  • Eligible Participants - Allows Even Start programs that collaborate with Title I, Part A programs to expand Even Start services to children who are 8 years of age or older if funds from the Part A program are used to contribute to the cost of providing programs for these children.

The NCLB Act includes one amendment: Under the 2000 reauthorization of the program, States may reserve up to 6 percent of funds for State-level activities, including administration, technical assistance for program improvement through a grant or contract, and administering the Indicators of Program Quality requirements in the law. The reauthorized ESEA allows States to also use these funds for improving the quality of family literacy services provided under Even Start programs.

Accountability

  • Federal - Requires an independent evaluation of the program to: (1) determine the performance and effectiveness of the program; (2) identify effective Even Start programs; and (3) provide technical assistance to States and subgrantees to ensure that local evaluations provide accurate information on the effectiveness of the program.

  • State - Requires States to develop indicators of program quality (some are specified in the law) and use them to monitor, evaluate, and improve Even Start programs within the State. (States were required to submit these indicators to the Secretary by June 30, 2001 in order to receive program funds.)

  • Local - Requires a subgrantee to provide for an independent program evaluation that is to be used for program improvement.

Allocations

  • Federal to State - Formula allocations are based on each State's current-year share of Title I, Part A funds, with a minimum State allocation of the greater of $250,000 or ½ of 1 percent.

  • State to Local - SEAs make competitive subgrants to partnerships of LEAs and other organizations, giving priority to proposals that target areas designated as empowerment zones or enterprise communities or that propose to serve families in other high-poverty areas.

Set-Asides

  • Federal - Requires 6 percent of the annual appropriation for programs serving migrant children, the outlying areas, and Indian tribes and tribal organizations if the appropriated amount for the program exceeds $200 million (or 5 percent when the appropriation is $200 million or less). Requires a grant for an Even Start project in a women's prison. Allows up to 3 percent for evaluation and technical assistance.

  • In years in which the appropriation exceeds the amount appropriated for the preceding fiscal year, requires $2 million, or 50 percent of the excess, whichever is less, for the National Institute for Literacy (NIFL) to carry out scientifically based research on family literacy. When the appropriation is the same or less than the preceding year's appropriation, requires "sufficient funds" for NIFL to continue multi-year research projects.

    Authorizes $1 million for competitive grants to States for Even Start statewide family literacy initiatives in years when the appropriation increases over the previous year.

  • State - Allows SEAs to reserve up to 6 percent of their allocation to administer the program; provide technical assistance for program improvement and replication through subgrants or contracts; develop indicators of program quality and monitor, evaluate, and improve programs based on the State's indicators; and (beginning with the 2001 amendment) improve the quality of family literacy services provided under Even Start programs. An SEA may use up to half of this reservation for program administration.


Improving Literacy Through School Libraries
(Title I, Part B, Subpart 4)

Overview

New program authorizing $250 million to assist schools in providing students with access to: (1) up-to-date school library materials; (2) technologically advanced school library media centers; and (3) professionally certified school library media specialists. Authorizes (1) competitive awards directly to LEAs at appropriation levels below $100 million; and (2) formula allocations to States at appropriation levels of $100 million or more. A State would use its funds to make competitive awards to LEAs. For additional information please e-mail literacyandschoollibraries@ed.gov.

Program Description

  • Eligible LEAs - Sets different eligibility rules for the Federal and State awards. For direct awards from the Secretary, LEAs with a child-poverty rate of at least 20 percent. For awards from SEAs, LEAs with a child-poverty rate of (1) at least 15 percent or (2) greater than the statewide child-poverty rate.

  • Applications - Requires each State desiring assistance to submit an application describing: (1) how it would assist eligible LEAs to meet the requirements of the program and use scientifically based research to implement effective school library media programs; and (2) the standards and techniques it would use to evaluate the quality and impact of the activities carried out with program funds.

    Requires an LEA to submit an application that describes its need for school library media improvement, how it would use program funds, and how the LEA would: (1) involve school library media specialists, teachers, administrators, and parents; (2) coordinate the use of program funds with other Federal, State, and local funds; and (3) collect and analyze data on the quality and impact of activities carried out with program funds.

  • Uses of Funds - Authorizes LEAs to use funds to: (1) acquire school library media resources; (2) acquire and use technology that can help to develop the information retrieval and critical thinking skills of students; (3) facilitate Internet links and other resource-sharing networks; (4) provide (a) professional development for school library media specialists and (b) activities that foster increased collaboration between school library media specialists, teachers, and administrators; and (5) provide students with access to school libraries during non-school hours.

Accountability

  • Federal - Requires the Secretary to conduct an independent evaluation not later than three years after the date of enactment of No Child Left Behind and biennially thereafter. Requires the Secretary to transmit the annual State reports to Congress.

  • State - Requires each participating State to compile the annual LEA reports and transmit them to the Secretary.

  • Local - Requires each LEA receiving a grant to report to the Secretary (or the State if the program is State administered) on: (1) how program funds was used; and (2) the extent to which program funds were used to increase access to, and the use of, school library media resources.

Allocations

  • Federal to LEA - At appropriations levels below $100 million, the Secretary makes one-year awards directly to eligible LEAs.

  • Federal to State - At appropriations levels at or above $100 million, the Secretary makes formula awards based on each State's prior-year share of Title I, Part A.

  • Within State - Competitive awards to eligible LEAs.

Set-Asides

  • Federal - one-half of 1 percent for the BIA, and one-half of 1 percent for the Outlying Areas.

  • State - Up to 3 percent to: (1) provide technical assistance; (2) disseminate information on effective school library media programs; and (3) meet administrative expenses.


Education of Migratory Children
(Title I, Part C)

Overview

Retains, without major changes, the current program to provide financial assistance to State educational agencies to establish and improve programs of education for children of migratory farmworkers and fishers.

Changes from Current Law:

  • Hold-Harmless - Adds a hold-harmless requirement beginning in FY 2003 that would provide every State (other than Puerto Rico) at least 100 percent of the amount that it received in FY 2002. A State (other than Puerto Rico) that did not receive funding in FY 2002 would receive at least 100 percent of the amount that it would have received in FY 2002 if its application had been approved.

  • State Allocations - Beginning in FY 2003, requires that funds in excess of FY 2002 be allocated to States (other than Puerto Rico) based on actual counts of eligible migratory students who resided in the State in the previous year and who received services in the summer or intersession programs provided by the State. (Under current law, funds are allocated on the basis of full-time-equivalent counts.)

  • Treatment of Puerto Rico - Phases in changes that, over four years, reduce the restrictions on Puerto Rico's allocation and give Puerto Rico a larger share of total funds (so long as no other State loses funding).

  • Coordination of Migrant Education Activities - Adds requirements that the Secretary assist States in developing effective methods for the electronic transfer of student records and ensure a linkage of migrant student record systems for the purpose of electronic exchange using the diversity of existing systems.Also requires the Secretary to determine the minimum data elements that each State receiving funds should collect and maintain, and to seek public comment on proposed data elements by publishing them in the Federal Register not later than 120 days after enactment. Requires the Secretary to submit a report to Congress on State progress on, and recommendations for, developing and linking electronic records transfer systems by April 30, 2003.

  • Also adds a requirement that an SEA or LEA receiving migrant funds provide records on migrant students to other States and LEAs at no cost. Increases the maximum amount for migrant coordination activities (from $6 million to $10 million), and the maximum amount for Incentive Grants (from $1.5 million to $3 million). Caps Incentive Grant awards at $250,000 each.

Accountability

  • None specifically in the Migrant Education (Part C) program. However, under Title I Part A, the law will continue to require that State assessment systems enable disaggregation of results for migrant students.

Allocations

  • Federal to State - Funds are allocated to States through a formula on the basis of each State's per-pupil education expenditure for education and its count of migratory children, aged 3 through 21, residing within the State and an adjustment for those students receiving summer services.

  • State to Local - Once the Department determines the State's allocation, the SEA provides MEP services and activities either directly or through subgrants to local operating agencies (LOAs) which can be either local educational agencies (LEAs) or other nonprofit private agencies.

Set-Asides

  • Federal - Up to $10 million for coordination of Migrant Education activities.

  • State - Up to 1 percent for State administration.


Prevention and Intervetion Programs for Neglected or Delinquent Children or Youth
(Title I, Part D)

Overview

Retains, with a few changes, the current program to provide financial assistance to: (1) State educational agencies for educational services to neglected and delinquent children and youth under age 21 in State-run institutions for juveniles and in adult correctional institutions, and (2) local educational agencies for educational services to children and youth in local correctional facilities and to other at-risk populations.

Changes from Current Law:

  • State Agency program (Subpart 1) - Phases in changes that, over four years, reduce the restrictions on Puerto Rico's allocation and give Puerto Rico a larger share of total funds (so long as no other State loses funding).

  • Transition Services - Increases the amount States may spend on transition activities from a maximum of 10 percent to a maximum of 30 percent (and requires that States spend a minimum of 15 percent).

  • Local Agency program (Subpart 2) - Retains the program (which States operate by setting aside money from Title I - A), but narrows the program to primarily focus on the academic and other needs of youth released from corrections facilities located in an LEA. (Dropout prevention is also an allowable activity, especially for pregnant and parenting teenagers.)

  • Annual Model Program - Adds an authority allowing the Secretary to reserve up to 2.5 percent of funds to develop a uniform model to evaluate Title I, Part D programs and to provide technical assistance to support the capacity-building of State agency programs.

Accountability

  • Maintains requirements that SEAs and LEAs evaluate their program at least once every three years, using multiple measures to determine program impact on participants achievement, credit accrual, transition from a facility to a regular LEA, and success in completing secondary school and obtaining employment.

  • The Subpart 2 program: (1) allows an SEA to reduce or terminate a project if an LEA does not show progress in reducing dropout rates over a three-year period; and (2) requires that local correctional facilities and delinquent institutions, after receiving assistance for three years, demonstrate that there has been an increase in the number of youth returning to school, obtaining a secondary school diploma or its equivalent, or obtaining employment after these youths are released.

Allocations

  • Federal to State - Funds are allocated to States through a formula based on the number of children in State-operated institutions and per-pupil education expenditures for the State. Each State's allocation is generated by child counts in State institutions that provide at least 20 hours of instruction from non-Federal funds; adult correctional institutions must provide 15 hours a week.

  • State to State Agency - Once the Department determines the State's allocation, the SEA makes subgrants to each state agency based on its proportionate share of the States adjusted enrollment count of N or D children and youth.

Set-Asides

  • Federal - up to 2.5 percent for evaluation (and for the development of a uniform model to evaluate Part D) and technical assistance.

  • State - Up to 1 percent of funds for State administrative costs.


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Last Modified: 01/19/2005