A. No. An LEA and its Title I schools may spend as much funds as necessary on professional development activities to improve the achievement of participating children.
Q2. Must a specific amount of Title I, Part A funds be spent on professional development activities?
A. An LEA and its Title I schools are not required to spend a specific amount of Title I, Part A funds on professional development activities, unless a school has been identified as needing improvement under section 1116. However, sufficient resources must be devoted to carry out effectively the professional development activities required under section 1119.
Q3. May Title I funds spent on professional development activities be taken into consideration in meeting the local cost-sharing requirement under Title II?
A. Yes. Any Title I, Part A funds spent on professional development activities may be used to meet the local cost-sharing requirement under Title II (section 2209).
Q4. How may professional development activities be provided?
A. Title I schools and LEAs may provide professional development activities directly or through consortia arrangements with other schools or LEAs, educational service agencies or other local consortia, institutions of higher education, or other public or private institutions or organizations.
Q5. May private school teachers and parents participate in professional development activities?
A. Private school officials and staff who work directly with private school children who participate in Title I may be included in professional development activities. In addition, parents of private school children may participate in professional development activities, if appropriate. Public school teachers who provide Title I services to private school children must be provided professional development activities, as needed.
American Council on the Teaching of Foreign Languages, Inc. 6 Executive Plaza, Yonkers, NY 10701-6801. For copies of draft standards, other available material, or information about opportunities to comment on the standards, contact Jamie Draper at (914) 963-8830 or fax (914) 936-1275.
American Association for the Advancement of Science. 1333 H Street, NW, Washington, DC 20005. The AAAS has developed Project 2061 and Science for All Americans, which provide an outline of science standards. For more information or materials, call (202) 326-6680 or fax (202) 371-9849.
American Association for Adult and Continuing Education. 1101 Connecticut Avenue, NW, Suite 700, Washington, DC 20036. Call (202) 429-5131 or fax (202) 223-4579. The AAACE is a national association interested in adult education issues.
American Vocational Association. 1401 King Street, Alexandria, VA 22314. Call (703) 683-3111 or fax (703) 683-7424. The AVA is the national association for vocational education.
Association of American Colleges and Universities. 1818 R Street, Washington, DC 20009. Call (202) 387-3760.
Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development. 1250 North Pitt Street, Alexandria, VA 22314. Call (703) 549-9110. The ASCD provides information, assistance, and conferences for those involved in curriculum, instruction, supervision, and leadership in the schools.
Association of Teacher Educators. 1900 Association Drive, Suite ATE, Reston, VA 22091. Call (703) 620-3110 or fax (703) 620-9530. The ATE is the national association for those who teach education; the association is active in teacher training/staff development issues. They are reviewing standards in teacher education.
Center for Civic Education. 5146 Douglas Fair Road, Calabasas, CA 91302-1467. For copies of draft standards, other available material, or information about opportunities to comment on the standards, contact Margaret Branson at (818) 591-9321 or fax (818) 591-9330 or contact Mark Molly at (202) 265-0529 or fax (202) 265-0710.
Council for Exceptional Children. 1920 Association Drive, Reston, VA 22091-1589. Call (703) 620-3660 or fax (703) 264-9494. The CEC is the national association for children with disabilities.
Council of Chief State School Officers. One Massachusetts Avenue, NW, Suite 700, Washington, DC 20001-1431. Call (202) 336-7015 or fax (202) 408-8076. The CCSSO is the national association for state education directors. The Council is interested in all aspects of the Goals, especially on the state level.
Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC). 7420 Fullerton Rd., Suite 110, Springfield, VA 22153. Call 1-800-433-ERIC. See U.S. Department of Education Resources information.
Fund for the Improvement of Postsecondary Education. Teacher Education Programs, U.S. Department of Education, 600 Independence Avenue, SW, Washington, DC 20202.
Goals 2000. Department of Education, Office of the Secretary, 600 Independence Avenue, SW, Washington, D.C., 20202. Call (202) 401-3078. Goals 2000 is the U.S. Department of Education's office that administers the National Education Goals and programs to meet the Goals.
Home and School Institute. MegaSkills Education Center, 1500 Massachusetts Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20005.
International Reading Association. 444 North Capitol Street, NW, Suite 422, Washington, DC 20001. Call (202) 624-8827 or fax (202) 624-8826. The IRA is interested in reading and other related curriculum issues.
National Academy of Sciences. National Research Council, 2101 Constitution Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20418. For copies of draft standards, other available material, or information about opportunities to comment on the standards, call (202) 334-1399.
National Association for Bilingual Education. 1220 L Street, NW, Suite 610, Washington, DC 20005-4018. Call (415) 469-4781 or fax (415) 239-1837. The NABE promotes the provision of bilingual education services to children.
National Association for the Education of Young Children. 1509 16th Street, NW, Washington, DC 20036-1426. Call (800) 424- 2460. This association is dedicated to improving the quality of care and education provided to children from birth to age 8. It offers publications, training materials, and policy-related information and administers the National Academy of Early Childhood Programs, a voluntary national accreditation system for high-quality early childhood programs.
National Association of Elementary School Principals. 1615 Duke Street, Alexandria, VA 22314-3483. Call (703) 684-3345 or fax (703) 548-6021. The NAESP serves as an advocate for high-quality educational and social programs to benefit children and youth.
National Association of Secondary School Principals. 1904 Association Drive, Reston, VA 22091. Call (703) 860-0200 or fax (703) 860-5432. The NASSP is the national association for high school and middle school principals; the association is interested in a variety of curriculum, school safety, and other Goals- and standards-related issues.
National Black Child Development Institute. 1023 15th Street, NW, Suite 600, Washington, DC 20005.
National Board for Professional Teaching Standards. 1900 M Street, NW, Suite 210, Washington, DC 20036. Call (202) 463-3980 or fax (202)463-3008. The National Board provides a voluntary evaluation program leading to national teacher certification. The Board is establishing high and rigorous standards for teaching, while providing states and localities with great flexibility in assessment and strategies. It is also working to improve public recognition of the achievements and abilities of teachers.
National Center for Family Literacy. Waterfront Plaza, Suite 200, Louisville, KY 40202-4251.
National Center for History in the Schools at UCLA. 231 Moore Hall, 405 Hilgard Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 90024. For copies of draft standards, other available materials, or information about opportunities to comment on the standards, contact Linda Symcox at (310) 825-4702.
National Council for History Education. 26915 Westwood Road, Suite B2, Westlake, OH 44145. Call (216) 835-1776 or fax (216) 835-1295. The council provides leadership in history education, develops connections between schools and colleges, and promotes greater inclusion of history in the curriculum.
National Council for the Social Studies. 3501 Newark Street, NW, Washington, DC 20016. Call (202) 966-7840 or fax (202) 966-2061. The NCSS provides leadership in the field of social studies education, assists in the professional development for social studies educators, and strengthens the advancement of social studies education.
National Council of Geographic Education. Geography Standards Project, 1600 M Street, NW, Washington, DC 20036. For copies of draft geography standards, other available materials, or information about opportunities to comment on the standards, contact Heather Scofield at (202) 775-7832 or fax (202) 429-5771.
National Council of Teachers of English. 111 West Kenyon Road, Urbana, IL 61801. Call (217) 328-3870 or fax (217) 328-0977. The council works to help teachers of English and develop curriculums, materials, and standards in English.
National Council of Teachers of Mathematics. 1906 Association Drive, Reston, VA 22091. Call (703) 620-9840 or fax (703) 476-2970. The 92,000-member NCTM improves the quality of mathematics teaching in the schools. It produced the NCTM standards for curriculum and evaluation (1989) and teaching (1991).
National Middle Schools Association. 4807 Evanswood Drive, Columbus, OH 42339-6292. Call (614) 848-8211 or fax (614) 848-4703. NMSA members are educators and parents interested in middle school education.
National School Board Association. 1680 Duke Street, Alexandria, VA 22314. Call (703) 838-6700 or fax (703) 683-7590. The NSBA represents the nation's school board members, who determine policy for public school districts. They have produced materials to help school boards set priorities for districts based on polling of school personnel, community residents, students, and recent graduates.
National Science Teacher Association. 1840 Wilson Boulevard, Arlington, VA 22201. Call (703) 243-7100 or fax (703) 243-7177. The NSTA works to improve the teaching of science and the way science is presented in the schools.
National Staff Development Council. P.O. Box 240, Oxford, OH 45056. Call (800) 727-7288 or (513) 523-6029. This nonprofit membership association works to improve schools through individual and organizational development. NSDC offers an annual conference, academies, consulting, a bulletin board on America Online, and publications. NSDC has produced national standards for staff development at the elementary, middle, and secondary levels.
Office of Educational Research and Improvement. U.S. Department of Education, 555 New Jersey Avenue, NW, Washington, DC 20208, 1-800-USA-LEARN. The OERI has general information about content standards as well as information and research reports on each of the National Education Goals. They conduct research in ways to improve education and teaching and administer several regional education labs.
Parents as Teachers National Center, Inc. 9374 Olive Boulevard, St. Louis, MO 63123.
Phi Delta Kappa. Center for Professional Development, P.O. Box 789, Bloomington, IN 47402. Call (800) 766-1156. PDK, the professional fraternity in education, offers scholarships, policy analysis, publications, and professional development opportunities.
Secretary's Commission on Achieving Necessary Skills (SCANS). U.S. Department of Labor, 200 Constitution Ave, NW, Washington DC 20210, 1-800-788-SKILL. The commission is appointed by the Secretary of Labor to determine the skills young people need to succeed in the world of work. The Commission's fundamental purpose is to encourage a high-performance economy characterized by high-skill, high-wage employment.
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Educational Resources Information Center, (1995). The ERIC Review: Professional Development, 3(3), 1-30; (ACCESS ERIC, 800-LET-ERIC).
Hord, S.M., & Boyd, V. (1995). Professional development fuels a culture of continuous improvement. Journal of Staff Development, 16(1), 10-15.
Levine, S. (1989). Designs for learning. In S. Caldwell (Ed.), Staff development: A handbook of effective practices (pp. 70-83). Oxford, OH: National Staff Development Council.
Loucks-Horsley, S., Harding, C.K., Arbuckle, M.A., Murray, L.B., Dubea, C., & Williams, M.K. (1987). Continuing to learn: A guidebook for teacher development. Andover, MA: The Regional Laboratory for Educational Improvement of the Northeast and Islands and National Staff Development Council.
North Central Regional Educational Laboratory, (1994). Professional development: Changing Times. Policy Briefs, Report 4, 1994. Oak Brook, IL: Author.
Professional Development Team. (1994). Draft mission statement and principles of professional development. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education.
Slack, K. (1993). Training for the real thing. Training and Development, 47(5), 79.
Sousa, D.A. (1992). Ten questions for rating your staff development program. Journal of Staff Development, 13(2), 34-36.
Sparks, D., & Loucks-Horsley, S. (1990). Five models of staff development for teachers. Oxford, OH: National Staff Development Council.
U.S. Congress (1994). Improving America's Schools Act of 1994. Washington, DC: Author.
Wood, F., & Thompson, S. (1993). Assumptions about staff development based on research and best practice. Journal of Staff Development, 14(4), 52-57.22.