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2 Murphy, J. and Louis, K. S. (1999). Handbook of research on educational administration. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass; Smith, W. F. and Andrews, R. L. (1989). Instructional leadership: How principals make a difference. Alexandria, Va.: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development; Glickman, C. D. (2002). Leadership for learning: How to help teachers succeed. Alexandria, Va.: Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development; and Elmore, R. J. (2000). Building a new structure for school leadership. New York: The Albert Shanker Institute.
4 For a perspective on the school community environment as a positive force for school reform, see Fullan, M. (1993). Change forces: Probing the depths of educational reform. London: The Falmer Press, pp. 84-103.
6 The 11 states reporting that they have approved innovative pathways to administrative certification include California (new legislation), Idaho, Kentucky, Maryland (intended for people already in the education system), Massachusetts, Minnesota, Mississippi, New Hampshire, Ohio (not used), Tennessee (not used), and Texas (only for people who have been teachers or principals). Although New Jersey, New York, and Oregon report having no alternate routes, they do have programs for non-traditional candidates to get into administrative jobs. Colorado, Georgia, Illinois, and Kansas have alternate routes for superintendents, but not for principals. Hawaii, which has only one school district, has an alternate route for principals. Florida passed legislation in 2002 giving local school boards authority to set their own alternative qualifications for persons wishing to become principals. Feistritzer, op.cit.
7 Leithwood, K. and Duke, D. L. (1999). "A century's quest to understand school leadership." In Murphy, J. and Louis, K. S., Handbook of research on educational administration. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, pp. 45-72.
88 Haycock, K. (1999). Dispelling the myth: High-poverty schools exceeding expectations. Washington, D.C.: The Education Trust; Barkley, S., Bottoms, G., Feagin, C. H., and Clark, S. (1999). Leadership matters: Building leadership capacity. Atlanta, Ga.: Southern Regional Education Board; Fullan, M. (1993). Change forces: Probing the depths of educational reform. London: The Falmer Press.
_licensure_consortium/standards_for_ school_leaders/562.cfm. See also WestEd. (2003). Moving standards into everyday work: Descriptions of practice. San Francisco: Author.
10 NAESP Fact Sheet/NAESP 2002 Survey at http://www. naesp.org.
11 Knapp, M. S. et al. (1995). Teaching for meaning in high-poverty classrooms. New York: Teachers College Press; Charles A. Dana Center. (1999). Hope for urban education: A study of nine high-performing highpoverty urban elementary schools. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Education; Blase J., and Blase J. (1999). "Principals' instructional leadership and teacher development: Teachers' perspectives," Educational Administration Quarterly, 35 (3), 349-78.