State and Local Action Steps and Practices to Improve School-Based Health
High-Impact Opportunity #3
Provide or Expand Services That Support At-Risk Students, Including Through Medicaid-funded Case Management.
Schools and health organizations should work together to provide wraparound services (services that address the full spectrum of health, education, safety, and welfare needs) to students, in order to remove barriers to learning that may be created by health conditions, exposure to violence or trauma, or instability or stress in the community or at home.
Wraparound services have been shown to benefit children, including those who are low-income, chronically absent, homeless, or otherwise at risk of falling behind in school. Childhood trauma or maltreatment, such as neglect and abuse, can negatively affect brain development. Coordinated services that protect young children from the effects of trauma are likely to promote brain development and learning ability.
LEAs and schools can, in accordance with an approved state Medicaid plan and applicable federal privacy laws, use Medicaid funding to support district and school-based case managers, who can work to connect Medicaid-enrolled students in schools to necessary health care and related support services (e.g., housing, transportation). (Please refer to page XX for additional information on key federal laws protecting student data and privacy.)
LEAs and schools should explore, in compliance with applicable privacy laws, data sharing agreements with health organizations to address the academic and physical, mental, and behavioral needs of students at risk of falling behind and/or dropping out of school./p>
At Park Elementary, in the Hayward Promise Neighborhood in Hayward, California, intervention specialists and case managers work together to support health and wellness, parent education, academics, social services, and mental health services as part of a cradle-to-career continuum. These coordinators manage referrals for students, which enable Park staff to better support students' and families' needs. For example, one such referral resulted in a public health nurse conducting biweekly home visits to a family to help them complete an action plan and enroll in Medi-Cal health benefits.
- To learn about the important role school counselors play in ensuring student success and the Federal Programs designed to support school counselors, visit http://www2.ed.gov/policy/elsec/guid/secletter/140630.html.
- To access a one-page HHS services locator document that lists available services such as assistance programs and social services for children, adolescents and young adults, visit: http://www.hhs.gov/ash/oah/resources-and-publications/assets/health_service_locator.pdf.
- To understand the legal requirements for supporting homeless students with disabilities under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, visit http://center.serve.org/nche/downloads/briefs/idea.pdf and http://www2.ed.gov/about/offices/list/osers/osep/policy.html.
- For guidance on how to support homeless children and youth using Elementary and Secondary Education Act Title I, Part A Funds, visit http://center.serve.org/nche/downloads/briefs/titlei.pdf.
- For information on the impact of teen pregnancy on student outcomes and for strategies to support pregnant and parent students, visit http://www2.ed.gov/about/offices/list/ocr/docs/pregnancy.pdf.
- To learn what wellness informed care is and how to integrate it into your community/workplace, visit http://www.integration.samhsa.gov/health-wellness/wellness-strategies#wellness informed care.
- For information on the prevention and early identification of mental health and substance use conditions and for further resources regarding these concerns, visit http://www.medicaid.gov/federal-policy-guidance/downloads/CIB-03-27-2013.pdf.
- To ensure effective delivery of wraparound services, check out resources from the National Wraparound Initiative at http://nwi.pdx.edu/.
- For background information on and resources related to wraparound services and their role in Positive Behavioral Support, visit http://www.pbis.org/school/tertiary-level/wraparound.
- To read about the National Education Association's information regarding wraparound services and its recommendations for actors at the local, state and federal level, visit https://www.nea.org/assets/docs/Wraparound-Services-05142013.pdf.
- Suter, J.C. and E.J. Bruns. (2009). Effectiveness of the Wraparound Process for Children with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders: A Meta-Analysis. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 12(4), 336-351.
- Shonkoff, J. P. (2012). The Lifelong Effects of Early Childhood Adversity and Toxic Stress. Pediatrics, 129: e232e246. http://pediatrics.aappublications.org/content/pediatrics/early/2011/12/21/peds.2011-2663.full.pdf