October 2002

**Text (slide 17):**

**Scientifically Based Research and Effective Mathematics Instruction**

- All students can and should be proficient in mathematics.
- Mathematical proficiency has five intertwined strands:
*Understanding*mathematics*Computing*fluently*Applying*concepts to solve problems*Reasoning*logically*Engaging*with mathematics - seeing it as sensible, useful and doable.

- For all students to become mathematically proficient, major changes must be made in instruction, instructional materials, assessments, teacher education, and the broader educational system.