LEAD & MANAGE MY SCHOOL
Innovations in Education: Connecting Students to Advanced Courses Online
December 2007
Downloadable File PDF (1 MB)

Notes

1. National Commission on Excellence in Education, A Nation at Risk: The Imperative for Educational Reform (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Education, 1983). Available at http://www.ed.gov/pubs/NatAtRisk/index.html. Last accessed on Jan. 6, 2007.

2. New Commission on the Skills of the American Workforce, Tough Choices or Tough Times: The Report of the New Commission on the Skills of the American Workforce (Washington, D.C.: National Center on Education and the Economy, 2006).

3. See, for example, Stanley O. Ikenberry. Higher Education in a Changing World: An Opportunity for Global Collaboration. Plenary keynote presented at IAU Durban Conference: Universities as Gateway to the Future, Aug. 22–25, 2000, in Durban, South Africa. Available at http://www.unesco.org/iau/conferences/durban/rtf/confdurban11.rtf. Last accessed on Nov. 1, 2006.

4. Alan Greenspan. Future of the Social Security Program and Economics of Retirement. Testimony before the U.S. Senate, Special Committee on Aging, Mar. 15, 2005. Available at http://www.federalreserve.gov/BoardDocs/Testimony/2005/
20050315/default.htm
. Last accessed on Sept. 21, 2006.

5. National Association of Manufacturers, The Looming Workforce Crisis: Preparing American Workers for 21st Century Competition (Washington, D.C.: National Association of Manufacturers, 2005). Available at http://www.nam.org/s_nam/bin.asp?CID=37&DID=235064&
DOC=FILE.PDF
. Last accessed on Oct. 16, 2006.

6. New Commission on the Skills of the American Workforce, Tough Choices or Tough Times, Executive Summary (Washington, D.C.: National Center on Education and the Economy, 2006), 6–8.

7. U.S. Department of State, National Security Language Initiative Fact Sheet (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of State, Jan. 5, 2006). Available at http://www.state.gov/r/pa/prs/ps/2006/58733.htm. Last accessed on Aug. 9, 2007.

8. U.S. Department of Education, Answering the Challenge of a Changing World: Strengthening Education for the 21st Century (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Education, 2006), 21. Available at http://www.ed.gov/about/inits/ed/competitiveness/strengthening/
strengthening.pdf
. Last accessed on Aug. 9, 2007.

9. See, for example, Jay P. Greene and Marcus A. Winters, "Public High School Graduation and College-Readiness Rates: 1991–2002," education working paper, Manhattan Institute for Policy Research, New York, 2005.

10. See, for example, "Diplomas Count: An Essential Guide to Graduation Policy and Rates," Education Week 25, no. 41S (June 22, 2006): 3.

11. Margaret Spellings, prepared remarks for "National Summit on America's Silent Epidemic" (Washington, D.C., May 9, 2007). Available at http://www.ed.gov/news/pressreleases/2007/05/05092007.html. Last accessed on Sept. 12, 2007.

12. U.S. Department of Education, A Test of Leadership: Charting the Future of U.S. Higher Education (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Education, 2006), vi. http://www.ed.gov/about/bdscomm/list/hiedfuture/reports/
pre-pub-report.pdf
. Last accessed on Sept. 12, 2007.

13. U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, The Condition of Education (Supplemental Notes, Note 6: NAEP, NELS, and HS&B Transcript Studies). Available at http://nces.ed.gov/programs/coe/2003/supnotes/n06.asp. Last accessed on June 19, 2007.

14. The value of advanced courses is supported by research showing, for example, that students who scored 3 or higher (out of a maximum of 5) on 25 AP math and science exams and were exempted from the introductory courses in these subjects earned the same or higher grades in the secondlevel courses as students who took the introductory courses. (Rick Morgan and Len Ramist, Advanced Placement Students in College: An Investigation of Course Grades at 21 Colleges [Princeton, N.J.: Educational Testing Service, 1998]). There is also some evidence that participation in rigorous AP course work increases students' likelihood of success in postsecondary work even when they do not pass the AP exam. (Tom Luce and Lee Thompson, Do What Works: How Proven Practices Can Improve America's Public Schools [Dallas, Texas: Ascent Education Press, 2005], 141–143.)

15. U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, The Condition of Education, Special Analysis 2007: High School Coursetaking. Available at http://nces.ed.gov/programs/coe/2007/analysis/index.asp. Last accessed on June 20, 2007.

16. Ibid.

17. Ibid.

18. U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, The Condition of Education, Context of Elementary and Secondary Education: Coursetaking and Standards, "Availability of Advanced Courses in High Schools." Available at http://nces.ed.gov/programs/coe/2005/section4/indicator25.asp. Last accessed on June 20, 2007.

19. Anthony G. Picciano and Jeff Seaman, K–12 Online Learning: A Survey of U.S. School District Administrators (Needham, Mass.: The Sloan Consortium, 2007), 7–9.

20. William R. Thomas, director, Educational Technology, Southern Regional Education Board, e-mail to author, April 11, 2007.

21. Eugenio J. Gonzales, Kathleen M. O'Connor, and Julie A. Miles, How Well Do Advanced Placement Students Perform on the TIMSS Advanced Mathematics and Physics Tests? (Boston: The International Study Center, Boston College, 2001).

22. CCA’s alternative licensing program requires completion of course work, school-based training and mentoring, and observation and monitoring of the integration of effective practices. To qualify, candidates apply, document 30 semester hours of courses in their content field, pass state-required tests, and agree to be evaluated by the Colorado Department of Education. After one year these teachers receive a provisional credential and after two more years of supervised work they are awarded their professional credential.

23. Tiffany Waits, J. Carl Setzer, and Laurie Lewis, Dual Credit and Exam-Based Courses in U.S. Public High Schools: 2002–03, NCES 2005–009 (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, 2005). Available at http://nces.ed.gov/pubsearch/pubsinfo.asp?pubid=2005009. Last accessed on Nov. 9, 2007.

24. John Watson and Jennifer Ryan, Keeping Pace with K–12 Online Learning: A Review of State-Level Policy and Practice (Vienna, Va.: North American Council for Online Learning, 2006). Available at http://www.kpk12.com/ .
Last accessed on June 19, 2007.

25. Learning Point Associates, Virtual High School Program Evaluation, 2004–06 (Orlando, Fla.: Virtual High School, 2007), 35. Available online only with registration at http://www.govhs.org/Content/WhyVHS-Publications. Last accessed on Sept. 17, 2007.

26. Center for Evaluation and Assessment, College of Education, University of Iowa, executive summary for IOAPA Site Coordinators' Survey Report (internal document, Iowa Online Advanced Placement Academy, 2006).

27. NEA's Guide to Online High School Courses, issued June 2002, and developed in partnership with Virtual High School, the American Association of School Administrators, the CNA Corporation, IBM Corporation, National Association of State Boards of Education, National School Boards Association, and Verizon Communications, provides criteria for creating or assessing online courses. Available at http://www.nea.org/technology/onlinecourseguide.html. Last accessed on Sept. 6, 2007.

28. These SREB standards are available along with other key resources at http://www.sreb.org/programs/EdTech/SVS/index.asp. Last accessed on June 20, 2007.

29. The audit system is explained more fully at https://apcourseaudit.epiconline.org. Last accessed on June 20, 2007.

30. Optimal Performance, Inc., Executive Summary 2005–06: The Florida Virtual School Stakeholders' Surveys (Tallahassee, Fla.: Optimal Performance, Inc., 2006), 5–6.

31. Learning Point Associates, Virtual High School Program Evaluation, 2004–06 (Orlando, Fla.: Virtual High School, 2007), 31–32. Available online only with registration at http://www.govhs.org/Content/WhyVHS-Publications. Site page last accessed on Sept. 17, 2007.

32. Ibid, 28.

33. Three states, Kansas, South Dakota, and Alabama, require a specific online teaching certification for teachers participating in online programs. In John Watson and Jennifer Ryan, Keeping Pace With K–12 Online Learning: A Review of State-level Policy and Practice (Vienna, VA: North American Council for Online Learning, 2006). Available at http://www.kpk12.com/ .
Last accessed on June 19, 2007.

34. SREB, Educational Technology Cooperative, Standards for Quality Online Teaching (Atlanta: SREB, 2006). Available at http://www.sreb.org/programs/EdTech/pubs/PDF/06T02_Standards_
Online_Teaching.pdf
. Last accessed on Aug. 11, 2007.

35. Virtual High School, "New Teacher Survey Responses, 2005–2006" (internal document) (Orlando, Fla.: Virtual High School, n.d.).

36. To see this self-assessment, use the Is Online Learning for Me link under Academic Advisement at http://www.flvs.net/students_parents/index.php. Last accessed on Sept. 12, 2007.

37. This self-assessment is available on the COL Web site at http://www.col.k12.co.us/students/newstudents.html. Last accessed on Sept. 12, 2007.

38. Available at http://www.education.uiowa.edu/belinblank/programs/ioapa/
profile.html. Last accessed on Sept. 5, 2007.

39. The Michigan Merit Curriculum guidelines for online learning require that students take an online course, participate in an online experience, or participate in online experiences incorporated into each of the required credit courses of the Michigan Merit Curriculum. Additional information is available at http://www.michigan.gov/documents/mde/Online10.06_final_
175750_7.pdf
. Last accessed on Sept. 5, 2007.

40. Optimal Performance, Inc., Executive Summary 2005–06: The Florida Virtual School Stakeholders' Surveys (Tallahassee, Fla.: Optimal Performance, Inc., 2006), 3.

41. Liz Pape, "VHS Quality Benchmark Indicators" PowerPoint presentation (Maynard, Mass.: Virtual High School, 2007), slide 7.

42. Ibid, slide 13.

43. College Board, "Summary Reports: 2006, National Report." Available online under "Exams by State" at http://www.collegeboard.com/student/testing/ap/exgrd_sum/
2006.html
. (Use National Report link.) Last accessed on Sept. 17, 2007.

44. See note 14.

45. The Public Good, Incorporated, Colorado Online Learning, Final Evaluation Report, 2002–2005 (Lakewood, Colo.: Colorado Online Learning, 2005), 6; The Public Good, Incorporated, Colorado Online Learning, U.S. Learning Online, Evaluation Report (Lakewood, Colo.: Colorado Online Learning, 2006), 4. Both evaluations are available at http://www.col.k12.co.us/aboutus/evaluationreports.html. Last accessed on Sept. 17, 2007.

46. The Public Good, Incorporated. Colorado Online Learning, U.S. Learning Online, Evaluation Report, 34.

47. Firewalls prevent access to certain Web sites and do not allow "pop-ups," such as certain media players. Several program leaders reported that improperly set firewalls are a common problem, leading the school's online learning coordinator or the student to think something is wrong with the platform or the course when, in fact, the firewall settings simply need to be adjusted for the course to function properly.

48. College Board, AP National Summary. 2001. Available online under "Summary Reports" at http://www.collegeboard.com/student/testing/ap/exgrd_sum/
2006.html
. Last accessed on Sept. 12, 2007.

49. Ibid.

50. The Concord Consortium, n.d., "Our Mission." Available at http://www.concord.org/about/mission. Last accessed on Nov. 12, 2007.

51. Nikola Filby, "Approach to Methodological Rigor in the Innovation Guides," working paper, WestEd, San Francisco, Calif., 2006.


   31 | 32
TOC
Print this page Printable view Bookmark  and Share
Last Modified: 10/05/2009