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ADI (Academic Development Institute)—an Illinois nonprofit organization that received funding to operate a PIRC from 1997 to 2006
ARISE (full term; not an abbreviation)—a faith-based nonprofit organization providing a variety of services to immigrant families of south Texas
AYP (adequate yearly progress)—state-designated academic progress goals for schools and districts, aimed at encouraging improved performance among all student subgroups
CIPL (Commonwealth Institute for Parent Leadership)— a Kentucky-based program whose parent training model has been used by three of the PIRCs highlighted in this guide
CPL (Center for Parent Leadership)—a program run by CIPL that provides consulting services for other organizations wanting to provide their own parent leadership training
IDEA (Individuals with Disabilities Education Act) —a federal law mandating that all children with disabilities have access to a free, appropriate public education; it emphasizes special education and related services designed to meet the unique needs of these students and prepare them for employment and independent living
IDRA (Intercultural Development Research Association)— a texas-based nonprofit organization that received funding to operate a PIRC starting in 1999 and was refunded in 2006
IEP (individualized education program)—a written plan for educational support services and their expected outcomes developed for students designated for special education
IPS (Indianapolis Public Schools)—public school district for Indianapolis, Ind.
ISRC (Illinois Service Resource Center)—an Illinois state Board of Education technical assistance program funded with a grant under the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA)
LEA (local education agency)—an education agency (e.g., district) at the local level that exists primarily to operate schools or to contract for education services. A single school may sometimes be considered an LEA.
NCLB (No Child Left Behind Act of 2001)—signed into law in January 2002 and intended to help close the achievement gap between disadvantaged and minority students and their peers by improving public schools, this federal legislation is based on four basic principles: stronger accountability for results, increased flexibility and local control, expanded options for parents, and an emphasis on proven teaching methods. Key features include the alignment of high state academic standards and statewide assessments, the use of qualified teachers, greater parent involvement, and, when schools do not perform up to par, the options of school choice, supplemental tutoring, or both, for eligible students.
NNPS (National Network of Partnership Schools)— a program of Johns Hopkins university that invites schools, districts, states, and organizations to join together and use research-based approaches to organize and sustain programs of family and community involvement aimed at increasing student success in school
PIRC (Parental Information and Resource Center)— the federal grant program authorized by NCLB to help implement effective parent involvement policies, programs, and activities intended to improve student academic achievement and to strengthen partnerships among parents, teachers, principals, administrators, and others to meet children’s education needs
RQP (Right Question Project)—a Cambridge, Mass.-based nonprofit program that develops and disseminates innovative methods (e.g., training) to prepare people, irrespective of their literacy or education levels, to advocate for themselves and participate more effectively in decision-making processes that affect them
SEA (state education agency)—the state board of education or other agency or officer primarily responsible for the supervision of public elementary and secondary schools in a state
SES (supplemental educational services)—a provision of NCLB that provides free tutoring services or additional academic help outside the regular school day for students from low-income families when their school enters year two of school improvement and is designated "in need of improvement"
WOW (WOW! Workshops on Workshops)— training offered by IDRA for individuals who would like to be able to facilitate parent leadership training