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2 Gary Orfield and Chungmei Lee, Racial Transformation and the Changing Nature of Segregation (Cambridge, Mass.: The Civil Rights Project at Harvard University, 2006), http://www.civilrightsproject.ucla.edu/research/deseg/deseg06.php (last accessed on Jan. 16, 2008).
3 Willis D. Hawley, "Designing Schools That Use Student Diversity to Enhance Learning of All Students," in Lessons in Integration: Realizing the Promise of Racial Diversity in American Schools, ed. Erica Frankenberg and Gary Orfield (Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 2007). See also Richard Kahlenberg, All Together Now: Creating Middle-Class Schools through Public School Choice (Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institution Press, 2001).
4 Paul Hill, Lawrence C. Pierce, and James W. Guthrie Reinventing Public Education: How Contracting Can Transform America's Schools (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1997). See also U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Trends in the Use of School Choice 1993 to 2003: Statistical Analysis Report (Washington, D.C.: National Center for Education Statistics, 2006).
5 Christine Rossell, "Whatever Happened to Magnet Schools," Education Next 4, no. 2 (Spring, 2005), http://www.hoover.org/publications/ednext/3220691.html (last accessed on March 10, 2008).
6 Title I of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965, as amended, provides financial assistance to schools serving large numbers of children from low-income families.
7 Under Title VII of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA), National Academic Excellence Awards were given to schools to disseminate successful bilingual practices and programs. The 2002 reauthorization of ESEA replaced the Title VII grant with Title III, a formula grant program providing funding to states.
8 Willard R. Daggett, Achieving Academic Excellence through Rigor and Relevance (Rexford, N.Y.: International Center for Leadership in Education, 2005), http://www.leadered.com/pdf/Academic_Excellence.pdf (last accessed on Jan. 16, 2008).
9 As part of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act Act, Title VII, also known as the Bilingual Education Act of 1968, provided supplemental funding for school districts to support programs designed to meet the educational needs of children with limited English-speaking ability. (Title VII is no longer authorized; see note 7.)
10 Linda Darling-Hammond, Doing What Matters Most: Investing in Quality Teaching (Kutztown, Pa.: National Commission on Teaching and America's Future, 1997), http://www.nctaf.org/documents/DoingWhatMattersMost.pdf (last accessed on Jan. 16, 2008).
11 David Tyack and William Tobin, "The Grammar of Schooling: Why Has It Been So Hard to Change?" American Educational Research Journal 31, no. 6 (1994).
12 Donald Waldrip, "A Brief History of Magnet Schools" (Washington, D.C.: Magnet Schools of America, 2000), http://www.magnet.edu/modules/content/index.php?id=36 (last accessed on Jan. 16, 2008).
13 Hawley, 2007.
14 U.S. Department of Education, Evaluation of Magnet Schools Assistance Program, 1998 Grantees, Final Report (Washington, D.C.: American Institutes for Research, 2003).
15 The concept of "complex instruction" was developed by Elizabeth Cohen to address the different levels of abilities and social skills found in many classrooms such as those that emerge in racially and ethnically heterogeneous groups of students. Teachers using this method present students with complex tasks that demand multiple abilities, foster interaction, and problem solving. See Elizabeth Cohen and Rachel Lotan, "Producing Equal-Status Interaction in the Heterogeneous Classroom," American Educational Research Journal 31, no. 1 (1995).
16 Patricia Kannapel and Stephen Clements, Inside the Black Box of High-Performing High Poverty Schools: A Report from the Prichard Committee for Academic Excellence (Lexington, Ky.: Prichard Committee for Academic Excellence, 2005).
17 Normal Park Museum Magnet Web site, Parent Education Fund, http://www.normalparkmuseummagnet.com/fund.aspx (last accessed on Jan. 16, 2008).
18 Statistics indicate that 82.6 percent of Wake County Public School System (WCPSS) ninth-grade students graduated high school after four years compared with 68 percent statewide and 69 percent nationwide. Glenda Haynie and Brad McMillen, High School Graduation Rates: 2005-06 (Raleigh, N.C.: Wake County Evaluation and Research Department, 2007), http://www.wcpss.net/evaluation-research/reports/2006/
0616hs_grad_2005_06.pdf (last accessed on Jan. 16, 2008).
19 Nikola Filby, "Approach to Methodological Rigor in the Innovation Guides," working paper, WestEd, San Francisco, Calif., 2006.