Charter High Schools: Closing the Achievement Gap
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1 U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. 2007. The Condition of Education 2007: Trends in the Achievement Gaps in Reading and Mathematics, Indicator 14. Available at Last accessed on July 31, 2007.

2 Perie, M., Grigg, W. S., and Dion, G. S. 2005. The Nation's Report Card: Mathematics 2005 (NCES 2006–453). Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics.

3 North Central Regional Educational Laboratory. 2004. Perspectives on the Gaps; Fostering The Academic Success of Minority and Low-Income Students. Naperville, Ill.: Learning Points Associates.

4 U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. 2005. Digest of Education Statistics, 2004 (NCES 2006-005), Chapter 2.

5 Lemke, M., Sen, A., Pahlke, E., Partelow, L., Miller, D., Williams, T., Kastberg, D., and Jocelyn, L. 2004. International Outcomes of Learning in Mathematics Literacy and Problem Solving: PISA 2003 Results from the U.S. Perspective. (NCES 2005003). Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. Available at Last accessed on Sept. 22, 2006.

6 U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, NAEP Data Explorer: Last accessed on Sept. 21, 2006.

7 Green, J. and Winters, M. 2005. Public High School Graduation and College Readiness Rates: 1991 to 2002. New York: Manhatten Institute for Policy Research.

8 Kazis, R., Pennington, H., and Conklin, K. D. 2003. Ready for Tomorrow: Helping All Students Achieve Secondary and Postsecondary Success, A Guide for Governors, p. 4. Washington, D.C.: National Governors Association Center for Best Practices.

9 Analyses of state charter school laws are published by the Center for Education Reform: Last accessed on Sept. 21, 2006.

10 Smith, N. 2006. "National State of the Movement." Presentation at the 2006 National Charter Schools Conference, held in conjunction with the 13th annual California Charter Schools Association Conference, Feb. 28–March 3 in Sacramento, California.

11 The Center for Education Reform. 2005. Charter Schools by the Numbers: Research Fact Sheet, Part I. &documentID=2214§ionID=55. Last accessed on Sept. 20, 2006.

12 Lake, R. and Hill, P. 2005, November. Hopes, Fears & Reality. A Balanced Look At American Charter Schools in 2005, p.2. Seattle: National Charter School Research Project, Center on Reinventing Public Education.

13 Adelman, C. 1999. Answers in the Tool Box: Academic Intensity, Attendance Patterns, and Bachelor's Degree Attainment. Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Education.

14 Ibid.

15 Putnam, R. D. 1995. "Bowling Alone: America's Declining Social Capital." Journal of Democracy 6, 65-78, as cited in Fisher, C. B. and R. M. Lerner (Eds.). 2005. Encyclopedia of Applied Developmental Science, p. 1006. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

16 Education Evolving. 2005. Education Finance: More Money or Different Spending Choices. What Factors Make a Difference? p. 7. St. Paul, Minn.: Author.

17 Walcott, C., Owens-West, R., and Makkonen, R. 2005. High School Reform: National and State Trends. San Francisco: WestEd. (Prepared for the California Teachers Association.)

18 Kirst, M. and A. Venezia (Eds.). 2004. From High School to College: Improving Opportunities for Success in Postsecondary Education. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

19 Filby, N. 2006. Approach to Methodological Rigor in the Innovation Guides. Working paper, WestEd, San Francisco.

20 U.S. Department of Education, Office of Innovation and Improvement. 2004. Successful Charter Schools. Washington, D.C.: Author.

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