|Conduit Issuer||Year Conduit Began Issuing on Behalf of Charter Schools||Approximate Amount Issued to Date (in millions)||Number of Bond Issuances/Number of Schools|
|Colorado Educational and Cultural Facilities Authority (CECFA)||1999||$701||78 transactions/ 50 schools|
|Massachusetts Development Finance Agency (MassDevelopment)||1999||$168||19 transactions/ 14 schools|
|Michigan Public Educational Facilities Authority (MPEFA)||2003||$92||14 transactions/ 13 schools|
|Texas Public Finance Authority (TPFA) Charter School Finance Corporation||2004||$130||6 transactions/ 6 schools|
|District of Columbia City Government||2001||$197.7||19 transactions/ 13 schools|
Note: A conduit issuer is a public entity, such as a state bonding agency or a city, that may issue a tax-exempt bond on behalf of a third party, such as a hospital or a charter school.
Source: Phone interviews conducted for this guide with staff from the state-authorized conduit issuers listed in the table.