Of the Office for Civil Rights
Fiscal Year 2006
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II. TITLE IX OF THE EDUCATION AMENDMENTS OF 1972
Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 prohibits discrimination on the basis of sex in education programs and activities that receive federal funds. The enforcement provisions applicable to Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 (investigating complaints and conducting periodic compliance reviews on identified issues) are incorporated by reference in the Title IX regulations (34 C.F.R. Part 106). The Title IX regulations cover admissions and recruitment policies, participation in education programs and activities (such as athletics), financial assistance and employment in education programs and activities.
|Civil rights data indicates7 that in elementary and secondary education male student enrollment was higher than female student enrollment every year from 1994 through 2004. There were approximately 105 or more male students for every 100 female students. However, in regard to postsecondary education, a 2005 Digest of Education Statistics8 report indicates that of the young adults between the ages of 20 and 24 years, 903,000 males and 1,320,000 females have bachelor’s degrees. Thus males have 40.6 percent of the degrees in this age range. Males are also going to college at lower rates, representing 44 percent of enrollment,9 and are graduating at even lower rates (40.6 percent). This in turn means that for every 100 females in this age range with bachelor’s degrees there are 68.35 males with these degrees.|
8U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics (2005). Digest of Education Statistics: 2005, Table 9, “Number of persons age 18 and over, by highest level of education attained, age, sex and race/ethnicity: 2005.” Washington, D.C.: Author.
9Ibid., Table 168, “Enrollment, staff, and degrees conferred in postsecondary institutions participating in Title IV programs, by level and control of institution, sex, and type of degree: Fall 2003-04.”