About ED OFFICES
Endnotes
Archived Information


  1. Thomas A. Glennan and Arthur Melmed, Fostering the Use of Educational Technology: Elements of a National Strategy (Washington, DC: RAND Corporation, 1996) 18.

  2. U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Advanced Telecommunications in U.S. Public Elementary and Secondary Schools, 1995 (Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, February 1996) 3.

  3. Public Agenda Foundation, Assignment Incomplete: The Unfinished Business of Education Reform (New York, NY, October 1995).

  4. Intelliquest, Inc., National Computing Survey (Austin, TX: Microsoft/Intelliquest, April 1995).

  5. Aderluh, Deborah, "Schools Hook up to Net, Clinton," Sacramento Bee March 10, 1996: Bl.

  6. Schiller, Malouf, Hauser, and Fein, Technology and Children With Disabilities: Enhancing the Integration of Children With Disabilities (Baltimore, MD: Brooks Cole, forthcoming).

  7. Middleton and Means, Exploring Technologies for the Education of Children With Disabilities (Menlo Park, CA: SRI International, 1991).

  8. Gordin and Pea, "Prospects for Scientific Visualization as an Educational Technology," Journal of the Learning Sciences, 4,3 (1995) 249-279.

  9. Kulik, Kulik, and Bangert-Downs, "Effectiveness of Computer-based Education in Elementary Schools," Computers in Human Behavior, 1, (1991) 59-74; Kulik and Kulik, "Effectiveness of Computer-Based Instruction: An Updated Analysis," Computers in Human Behavior, 7 (1991) 75-94.

  10. Johnson, Uses of Video Technology To Facilitate Children's Learning, Doctoral dissertation (Nashville, TN: Vanderbilt University, 1987); Cognition and Technology Group at Vanderbilt, Enhancing Learning in At-Risk Students: Application of Video Technology (Syracuse, NY: ERIC Clearinghouse on Information Resources, 1989); Interactive Educational Systems Design, Report on the Effectiveness of Technology in Schools, '95-'96 (Washington, DC: Software Publishers Association, 1995) 22-23.

  11. Nelson, Watson, and Bush, "The Interactive Videodisc as an Educational Tool," Journal of Interactive Instruction Development, 11-16, 1989.

  12. Hasselbring, et al, An Evaluation of Specific Videodisc Courseware on Student Learning in a Rural School Environment (Knoxville, TN: Tennessee Valley Authority, 1991) 29-30.

  13. Moore and Thompson, The Effects of Distance Learning: A Summary of Literature, Southeastern Ohio Telecommunications Consortium, 1990; Kitchen, "Education and Telecommunications: Partners in Progress," Testimony before the Senate Committee on Labor and Human Resources, March 11, 1987.

  14. Mickie Anderson, "Technology: Today's Computer-Friendly Students Thrive on CD-ROMs and Interactive Learning, But the Hardware Bears a Hefty Price Tag," The Tampa Tribune December 11, 1996: 1.

  15. The Children's Partnership, America's Children and the Information Superhighway (Santa Monica, CA, and Washington, DC: September 1994).

  16. Collins, "The Role of Computer Technology in Restructuring Schools," Phi Delta Kappan, 73, 1 (1991) 28-36; Hasselbring, Goin, Zhou, Alcantara, and Musil, Cognitive Challenges and Pedagogical Opportunities of Integrated Media Systems (Albuquerque, NM, Presentation at International Conference, Technology and Media, Division of the Council for Exceptional Children, January 1992); Barron and Goldman, "Integrating Technology With Teacher Preparation," in Means, ed., Technology and Education Reform: The Reality Behind the Promise (San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass, 1994) 67-89.

  17. David Dwyer, "Apple Classrooms of Tomorrow: What We've Learned." Educational Leadership, 51, 7 (1994) 4-10.

  18. Anderson (1996).

  19. Dwyer (1994) 4-10; Sheingold and Hadley, Accomplished Teachers: Integrating Computers Into Classroom Practice (New York: Bank Street College of Education, Center for Technology in Education, 1990) 9; Herman, The Faces of Meaning: What Do Teachers, Students and Administrators Think Is Happening in ACOT (Los Angeles, CA: UCLA Center for the Study of Evaluation, 1988); Interactive Educational Systems Design (1995) 7-8.

  20. Margaret Riel, AT&T Learning Circle (Albuquerque, NM: Presentation at Symposium in Technology & Social Interaction, International Conference, Technology and Media, Division of the Council for Exceptional Children, 1992).

  21. Margaret Riel, "The Impact of Computers in Classrooms," Journal of Research on Computing in Education, 22,2 (1989) 180-189.

  22. Clements and Wilmot, "Reviewing and Viewing," Teaching Children Mathematics, 1,7 (1995) 456-457.

  23. Zorfass, Evaluation of the Integration of Technology for Instructing Handicapped Children (Middle School Level): Final Report of Phase II (Newton, MA: Education Development Center, 1991) 91-102; Ringstaff, Sandholtz, and Dwyer, Trading Places: When Teachers Utilize Student Expertise in Technology-intensive Classrooms. (Cupertino, CA: Apple Computer, Inc.,1991) 11-12.

  24. Zorfass, Corley, and Remz, "Helping Students With Disabilities Become Writers," Educational Leadership 51, 7 (1994) 62-66.

  25. Zorfass, et al. (1994) 62-66; Middleton and Means (1991).

  26. Sheingold and Frederiksen, "Using Technology To Support Innovative Assessment, in Means," ed., Technology and Education Reform: The Reality Behind the Promise (San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass, 1994) 91-108.

  27. Dwyer (1994) 4-10; Braun, Vision: TEST (Technologically Enriched Schools of Tomorrow), Final Report (Eugene, OR: International Society for Technology in Education, 1990) 7.

  28. Means, Blando, Olson, Middleton, Remz, and Zorfass, Using Technology To Support Education Reform (Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Education, 1993) 76-79.

  29. Collins (1991) 28-36.

  30. Ringstaff, Sandholtz, and Dwyer (1991)11-12.

  31. Saul Rockman, et al., Assessing the Growth: The Buddy Project Evaluation, 1994-95, Final Report (San Francisco, CA: March 1995).

  32. Committee for Economic Development, Connecting Schools to Our Changing World. A Technology Strategy for Improving Mathematics and Science Education (New York, NY: September 1995).

  33. CCA Consulting, Inc., Understanding Information Technology in Kindergarten Through Grade 12 (Wellesley, MA: 1995).

  34. U.S. Congress, Office of Technology Assessment, Teachers & Technology: Making the Connection (Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1995).

  35. Barron and Goldman (1994) 67-90.

  36. U.S. Congress, Office of Technology Assessment (1995) 83.

  37. Ringstaff et al. (1991) 16-17.

  38. McKinsey & Co., Connecting K-12 Schools to the Information Superhighway (Palo Alto, CA: 1995).

  39. U.S. Congress, Office of Technology Assessment (1995).

  40. National Information Infrastructure Advisory Council, KickStart Initiative: Connecting America's Communities to the Information Highway (Washington, DC: January 1996) 36.

  41. Pinellas County (FL) Public Schools, "Total Quality Schooling: A Plan to Empower a Community," August 1994.

  42. Glennan and Melmed (1996) 36-44.

  43. Barbara Means and Kerry Olson, Restructuring Schools With Technology: Challenges and Strategies (Menlo Park, CA: SRI International, November 1995).

  44. Apple Computer, Inc., Changing the Conversation About Teaching, Learning, and Technology: A Report on Ten Years of ACOT Research (Cupertino, CA: 1995).

  45. National Information Infrastructure Advisory Council (January 1996).

  46. Glennan and Melmed (1996) 35.

  47. Glennan and Melmed (1996) 32-34.

  48. Braun (1990).

  49. U.S. Congress, Office of Technology Assessment (1995).

  50. National Education Association, National Education Association's Communications Survey: Report of Findings (Washington, DC: June 1993).

  51. Quality Education Data, Inc., Networks Now, 1995: Survey of How States Use Telecommunication Networks in Education (Denver, CO: 1995) 6.

  52. U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics, Schools and Staffing Survey, 1993-1994 (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Department of Education, 1995).

  53. McKinsey & Co. (1995) 40.

  54. Glennan and Melmed (1996) 73.

  55. U.S. Congress, Office of Technology Assessment (1995).

  56. Quality Education Data, Inc., Technology in Public Schools, 1996: 15th Edition (Denver, CO: 1996).

  57. Glennan and Melmed (1996) 32-34; McKinsey & Co.(1995) 21; Committee for Economic Development, 1995, xii.

  58. McKinsey & Co. (1995) 32.

  59. CCA Consulting, Inc. (1995).

  60. Rockman et al. (1995).

  61. U.S. Department of Commerce, National Telecommunications and Information Administration, Falling Through the Net: A Survey of the "Have-Nots" in Rural and Urban America (Washington, D.C.: July 1995).

  62. Glennan and Melmed (1996) 88.

  63. Tesler, "Networked Computing in the 1990s," Scientific American (The Computer in the 21st Century: A Special Issue), 10-21, 1995.

  64. McKinsey & Co. (1995) 38, 66.

  65. McKinsey & Co. (1995) 54-62. The estimate of $109 billion includes both initial investments and ongoing costs, which rise steadily to reach $14 billion in the final year of implementation, according to McKinsey analyses (personal communication with Ted Meisel, McKinsey & Co.).

  66. Glennan and Melmed; (1996) 55-56.

  67. Telecommunications Industries Analysis Project, Schools in Cyberspace: The Cost of Providing Broadband Services to Public Schools (Boston, MA: July 1995).

  68. Glennan and Melmed (1996); QED, Inc., Educational Technology Trends, 8th Edition (Denver, CO: 1995) 20.

  69. Glennan and Melmed (1996) except where noted.

  70. Quality Education Data, Inc., Technology in Public Schools, 1994-95: 14th Edition (Denver, CO: 1996).

  71. U.S. Department of Commerce, Bureau of the Census, Statistical Abstract of the U.S., 1994 (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1994) 167.

  72. Quality Education Data, Inc., Educational Technology Trends, 8th Edition (Denver, CO: 1995) 20.

  73. McKinsey & Co. (1995) 66.

  74. U.S. General Accounting Office. School Facilities Not Designed or Equipped for the 21st Century (Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, April 1995).

  75. U.S. Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics (1996).

  76. CCA Consulting, Inc. (1995).

  77. Education Turnkey Systems, Inc., Marketing Guide for Title I (Falls Church, VA: 1995).

-###-
 Previous Table of Contents Next 

 
Print this page Printable view Send this page Share this page
Last Modified: 08/23/2003