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Appendix C — Part 2, State Support for Technology in Education
Archived Information


Maine

Planning:

Several statewide planning efforts are underway.

Infrastructure/Regulation:

Maine's Interactive Television System links universities, community colleges, and high schools to provide distance learning courses across the state. The Maine Public Utilities Commission has approved a plan for developing a school and public library network allowing high-speed access to each of 1,000 facilities for Internet, e-mail, and other telecommunications projects. The cost will be born by NYNEX as a result of a $20 million overcharge settlement. The first phase of this five-year project begins in April 1996 with the formation of an oversight board.

Funding:

The governor signed legislation in July 1995 that authorizes a general bond fund issue for $15 million to establish a distance learning network. The bond referendum was approved by voters in November 1995. The funds will be made available after July 1, 1996. The funds will provide the equipment to connect to the network, but not the monthly line charges. Of note, school districts are required to develop a plan for use of the network to participate.


Maryland

Planning:

In January 1995, the statewide Maryland Plan for Technology in Education was accepted by the Maryland State Board of Education. It is now providing the basis for planning and decision-making related to technology in education at the state level and, in many cases, at the local school system level as well. A committee on technology in education has been established to provide direction to and support the implementation of all the Technology Plan activities. The committee is chaired by representatives from all stakeholder groups throughout the state. As called for in the plan, a statewide technology inventory has been completed for each school in Maryland and results are now being compiled.

Infrastructure/Regulation:

The Bell Atlantic Network provides full-motion, interactive video and audio for up to four locations simultaneously. Bell Atlantic agreed to donate classroom equipment for 270 schools, community colleges, universities, and cultural institutions in Maryland. Each site, however, must pay very high long-distance fees for statewide broadcast. At this time, the network cannot be used for data transfer. A state information technology board is currently investigating options for setting up a true statewide network infrastructure that will handle voice, video, and data efficiently throughout the state.

Funding:

The governor in his FY97 budget has proposed a multiple-year initiative that would provide schools in Maryland with a complete wiring distribution system and some hardware, software, and funds for staff training in order to connect classrooms to information and communication resources. This budget request will be considered by the state legislature in 1996.


Massachusetts

Planning:

Massachusetts completed a comprehensive study for educational technology in 1994 known as Mass Ed Online. The state has started implementing two educational technology initiatives: (1) Upgrading the existing education network into a statewide client server network with full access to the Internet (Mass Ed Online LearnNet - MEOL). The state is advocating for a distributed network system with MEOL as the statewide network backbone. (2) Working with schools in developing local technology plans to support education reform. Plans will include the use of technology for teachers and students in curriculum; professional development in educational technology; use of technology in administration; capital expenditures; and other areas. All technology initiatives are integrated as line-item initiatives in the state's five-year (80-initiative) master plan that includes five-year state appropriations projections.

Funding:

On October 18, 1995, Governor Weld submitted to the legislature The Education Technology (ET) Bond Bill seeking $60 million in bonded spending to provide the Commonwealth's learners, teachers, and administrators with direct and indirect grants, services, and equipment.


Michigan

Planning:

The state government is planning for the creation of a Michigan Information Network -- a "virtual network" that would ensure the availability of high-speed, high-quality voice, video, and data communications for K-12 schools, community colleges, universities, libraries, medical facilities, governmental units, private businesses, and the general public. Also, the State Board of Education is on record as supporting the use of technology in education through the 22 recommendations in its five-year State Technology Plan.

Infrastructure/Regulation/Services:

The Michigan Telecommunications Act was recently amended and reauthorized for five more years. The law emphasizes the provision of most telecommunications services in a competitive market, and includes a section allowing educational institutions to operate distance-learning networks essentially free of regulations. According to specific criteria, most educational institutions may now sell excess telecommunications capacity, up to 25 percent of the institution's total capacity. The Michigan Department of Education communicates extensively with educational institutions and citizens via Internet based Gopher and World Wide Web servers.

Funding:

One-time grants totaling approximately $10.5 million were awarded to two statewide and six regional projects in 1995 by the Michigan Public Service Commission -- the result of a sharable earnings case involving Ameritech. The largest of the grants -- to Merit Network, Inc. -- has ensured local dial-in access to the Internet for every school in Michigan. Efforts to establish long-term support for the program are underway. Ameritech matched those funds with dollars of its own to create a program known as "Education Avenue." It provides discounts for schools to gain direct connections to the Internet.


Minnesota

Planning:

A statewide technology plan is being developed by a task force established by the Minnesota Department of Education. The Minnesota Education Telecommunications Council must recommend to the legislature by December 1996 a long-term governance of state and regional telecommunications systems.

Infrastructure/Regulation:

MN H4, the 1995 K-12 education finance bill, establishes a statewide telecommunications network for learning.

Funding:

$2.7 million has been appropriated for the "Instructional Transformation through Technology Grants Program" in 1996 and 1997. The legislature also appropriated $5.4 million over the 1996-97 biennium for this program. In addition, the Department of Children, Families and Learning supports the InforMNs Project, a joint effort between the Department and several other organizations to provide access to the Internet for schools. This program is funded at $500,000 in FY96.


Mississippi

Planning:

The Mississippi Master Plan for Educational Technology was adopted by the statewide Council for Educational Technology and the State Board of Education in October 1995. The plan focuses on the infusion of technology into classrooms to promote higher-order learning processes by students and to ensure equitable learning opportunities for all Mississippi citizens. The plan also establishes technology standards for teachers and outlines the development of the state educational backbone.

Infrastructure:

Based on the outline in the Master Plan, the Department of Education will connect all of the state's school districts together via the Bell South frame relay network. The network is scheduled to be completed by January 1997. Partners include the community and junior Colleges, the institutions of higher learning, the Mississippi Authority for Educational Television (ETV), and the Mississippi Library Commission. Applications that will run on the network include e-mail, access to the World Wide Web and the Internet, and the Mississippi student level database system that will provide for transfer of student records among school districts, community colleges, and institutions of higher learning. The Fibernet 2000 project, sponsored by Mississippi ETV and the Department of Education, is being expanded through a U.S. Department of Education Star Schools Grant to provide two-way audio and video instruction in every county in the state.

Funding:

The Technology Enhancement Act of 1994 is providing $26.8 million to local school districts for implementing their approved local technology plans. Plans must follow the guidelines set aside in the state technology plan and must set aside 20 percent of their funds for technology professional development. By the end of the summer, over 3,000 teachers will have been trained to use technology in their classroom.


Missouri

Funding:

Since 1988, Missouri has used an earmarked tax on videotape rentals to provide funding for satellite dishes on schools, satellite course fees, laserdisc players, and other educational uses. Revenue is about $2 million per year. Since 1994, lottery funds have provided approximately $5 million for schools to acquire technology. In 1995, an additional, one-time $5 million was provided for technology acquisition. Missouri also provides funds to support the use of vocational technology.

Infrastructure/Regulation:

The Missouri Department of Elementary and Secondary Education is in the second year of a three-year plan with the Missouri Research and Education Network to connect schools to the Internet.


Montana

Planning:

A state plan is being developed by a Technology Task Force jointly appointed by the Governor and the State Superintendent. Requirements for the technology plan include, describing the requirements for introducing state-of-the-art technologies into the classroom and school libraries, and how the state education agency will apply the use of technology to meet the needs of children from low income families.

Infrastructure:

SummitNet, the state and county government network backbone authorized by the legislature in 1994, is providing connections to each county seat, but not every school district. SummitNet is being augmented by Network Montana, a $2.56 million NSF grant to the University of Montana.

Funding:

The state provided $100,000 for technology in 1995.


Nebraska

Planning:

A state pre/K-12 technology plan has just been completed. This activity was done under the supervision of the Technology Consortium, an advisory committee to the State Board of Education. The State Board approved the mission statement, belief statements, and objectives of the plan in February 1996.

Infrastructure:

State legislation provided taxing authority to intermediate service units to set in place an education network. This was completed in 1995. State funding was authorized to provide grants to schools for connecting to the Internet and for installing local area networks. All schools should be on or have access to the Internet by the end of the 1996-97 school year. State funding continues to be provided for establishing interactive distance learning school district pods. It is anticipated that all public school districts will be networked via the pods within the next three years.

Services:

A concerted effort is now being made to provide inservice and training on the use of technology in learning to existing teachers via the intermediate service units and through the establishment of minimum competencies for teachers.


Nevada

Infrastructure/Regulation:

The Nevada School Network currently provides full Internet access to the two large urban school districts and four of fifteen rural districts.

Funding:

The legislature created the Trust Fund for Educational Technology in July 1995, to be administered by the state superintendent. The legislature passed SB204, which appropriated $500 million to the University and Community College System Network to enhance the network and $400,000 to the Department of Education to connect individual schools to the network. The bill requires that the University and the Department work cooperatively to accomplish those purposes.


New Hampshire

Planning:

A technology committee composed of Department staff, teachers, administrators, and service providers is currently drafting guidelines for local development of technology plans. All School Administrative Unit (SAU) offices are now accessing the Internet to communicate with each other. The next stage of the plan includes the transfer of files between the SAUs and the Department.

Services:

Several partnerships with business and industry have provided support to the program. Extensive training has been made available though this collaborative effort.


New Jersey

Planning:

"Educational Technology in New Jersey: A Plan for Action" was completed in the spring of 1993. The New Jersey Department of Education has developed technology specifications for school facilities. The state's core curriculum content standards (incorporating instructional technology in seven content areas) were proposed for adoption by the New Jersey State Board of Education in February 1996.

Funding:

$1.3 million was appropriated by the state for four competitive grant programs that establish model distance learning sites. The state's FY97 budget includes $10 million for educational technology entitlement grants to every school district.

Services:

The New Jersey Department of Education funds and coordinates pilot site activities in 19 districts and 2 consortiums to create models of technology implementation for statewide infrastructure. The state provides Internet access via business partnerships. The state's home page (http://www.state.nj.us) includes clearinghouse information.


New Mexico

Planning:

The state educational technology plan was adopted June 30, 1995. It defines a standard for broadband classroom connections and recommends equal funding for every child. As of December 1, 1995, all 89 school districts have a state approved strategic plan for integrating appropriate educational technology. During the 1996-97 school year, New Mexico will create a special fund to stimulate locally developed and state-approved technology plans.

Funding:

For the 1995-96 school year, funding for technology included a $9.50 per student categorical appropriation from the legislature, with an average local match of $114 per student.

Services:

State-funded teacher training sessions were planned for March and April of 1996, with support from the Los Alamos National Laboratory.


New York

Planning:

The New York State Board of Regents approved the Long Range Plan for Technology in Elementary and Secondary Education in 1990. The plan is being updated with participation from key stakeholders to reflect the use of technology, raising standards, and the implementation of new curriculum frameworks. A Regents Policy Council on Telecommunications and Information Technologies has been established to provide a forum for discussion for state business leaders and policymakers from state and federal governments.

Services:

A model schools program exists to provide K-12 teachers with in-service and pre-service opportunities to expand their knowledge and skills by integrating technology into classroom practice.


North Carolina

Planning:

A state instructional technology plan was completed in 1994.

Infrastructure/Regulation:

The state is building a comprehensive infrastructure for education, the North Carolina Information Highway.

Funding:

The North Carolina Instructional Technology Plan includes $381 million over a five-year period. Forty two million dollars was appropriated for the 1995-96 school year to begin implementation of the plan.


North Dakota

Planning:

The Educational Telecommunications Council continues its statewide planning activities in cooperation with the Department of Public Instruction and the Goals 2000 panel. Funding has been provided for local, regional, and statewide planning efforts. An updated plan will be presented to the legislature in the spring of 1996. Increased emphasis on training, accessibility, and equity will be reflected in this update.

Funding:

The state continues to provide grant funds and ongoing support for technology initiatives across the state.

Services:

Partnerships with the North Dakota state university system and the Department of Public Instruction have created two statewide programs: The Center for Innovation in Instruction, which provides technology-related training and technical assistance, and SEND-IT, which is the state's K-12 computer network and Internet gateway.

Infrastructure:

The state university system operates the Interactive Video Network (IVN), which provides interactive statewide video conferencing and university level courses. IVN is also interconnected with three of the state's K-12 interactive video clusters. These clusters involve 100 of the state's 240 school districts. The state's PBS affiliate, Prairie Public Broadcasting, has established, with assistance from the state and the U.S. Department of Agriculture, a statewide system of 60 satellite uplinks and downlinks.


Ohio

Funding:

The State Board of Education adopted a technology plan in 1992. In 1994, the state launched a five-year, $95 million set of bond issues to support educational technology. These funds will be used to wire every classroom in the state to support voice, data, and interactive video communications. Almost half of these funds will support equipment purchases for the poorest 25 percent of schools. In 1995, Governor Voinovich approved the SchoolNet Plus program, which provides $125 million for professional development for teachers and the purchase of equipment in grades K-4. An additional $275 million has been included in the FY97-98 capital appropriations bill to be considered in January 1997.


Oklahoma

Infrastructure:

OneNet is providing the telecommunications infrastructure for the state. Thirty-three hub sites have been established, connecting 82 percent of the population.

Services:

The state is providing $6 million to be used to develop the 33 hub sites that will allow for data and video connections for schools, government agencies, and libraries. A U.S. Department of Commerce TIIAP grant of $1.5 million will be used to develop approximately 15 community telecommunication centers. Southwestern Bell will provide $1.4 million for an additional 14 sites.


Oregon

Planning:

"The Role of Technology: A Plan to Support the Oregon Department of Education and 21st Century Schools" was released in 1992, with a series of recommendations.

Infrastructure:

The Oregon Public Education Network, the result of grass-roots contributions and state support, connects schools to the Internet and is rapidly expanding.


Pennsylvania

Planning:

In February 1996, Governor Ridge announced a three-year $121 million initiative entitled "Project Link to Learn." The plan calls for establishing a statewide network to be called the Pennsylvania Education Network (PEN). It calls for networking K-12 public schools and higher education institutions together, and for providing training for teachers to learn how to use technology to complement and enhance the curriculum.

Funding:

The first component of the initiative targets $100 million over a three-year period to improve the basic infrastructure capabilities of public K-12 schools. The second component of the initiative directs an additional $500,000 to poor and rural school districts to purchase satellite technology and increase interactive video conferencing capabilities. The third and final component directs $21 million to institutions of higher education, including community colleges, for the planning, design, and implementation of the PEN.


Rhode Island

Planning:

The Rhode Island Statewide Technology Plan, completed in December 1995, has been submitted to the Board of Regents for Elementary and Secondary Education for approval. It includes recommendations for an educational networking infrastructure, professional development strategies, curriculum integration, and funding.

Funding:

Funding has not been addressed in any recent legislation. Local districts and philanthropic foundations have provided significant funding.

Infrastructure:

A statewide network, RINet, has been developed by the Rhode Island Department of Education, the University of Rhode Island, Brown University, state libraries, and WSBE public TV. Dial-up modem banks provide toll free access from anywhere in the state. Direct digital connections to 17 of 36 school districts provide a high-speed backbone which is still expanding. The Department of Education provides free accounts for all educators.

Regulation:

A recently submitted data access plan for education by the state's sole telecommunication provider, NYNEX, to the Public Utilities Commission, will provide $8 million worth of carrier services for the educational state network over the next 5 years. Acceptance is pending.


South Carolina

Planning:

The South Carolina Educational Technology Plan, "Connecting South Carolina to the World" was released in November 1995.

Funding:

South Carolina has a state foundation that raises funds for technology.


South Dakota

Planning:

While several educational organizations have pursued technology planning activities, no statewide technology plan has been developed.

Funding:

South Dakota does not have a specific state appropriation that supports year-to-year educational technology expenditures. Current efforts in educational technology are funded by a diversity of federal, state, local, and grant resources.

Services/Infrastructure:

South Dakota has established a statewide, non-profit project for the purpose of providing leadership and technical assistance regarding technology applications for schools. The project operates a statewide electronic communication system for schools referred to as the Rural Development Education Network (RDE-Net). In addition, the state operates the Rural Development Telecommunications Network (RDTN) that services education as well as health, government, and business. The RDTN includes 18 two-way interactive sites and more than 60 one-way video and two-way audio sites. Nearly all of the 60 one-way sites are in school settings.


Tennessee

Infrastructure:

The state has equipped every school library and every technology coordinator with text-based Internet, and additional funds have been allocated to upgrade to graphics and connect all 1,554 schools by the fall of 1996.

Funding:

Since 1993-94, the state has provided a total of $98 million for educational technology, which includes $74 million for teacher training, state-of-the-art technology in 4,800 "21st Century classrooms," and yearly training, state salary support, and benefits for local technology coordinators.

Services:

The Governor has directed non-teaching state employees with teaching certificates to substitute-teach for five days during the 1995-96 school year, creating a pool of days that can be used for teacher training. The Tennessee Department of Education runs a statewide technology conference each spring for teachers and administrators.


Texas

Planning:

Texas' first state technology plan was released in 1988. It provided a framework to guide the state regional education service centers and school districts in meeting educational needs through the use of technology. Several progress reports have been developed to provide the status of the implementation of the original plan. In the 1995-96 school year, a task force was appointed to review the plan. The Texas Education Code for "adopting" textbooks and other instructional materials was changed in 1995 to include technology-based materials. The process now allows schools to select from lists of conforming, non-conforming, and open materials. This change makes it easier for schools to use textbook funds to purchase software and other electronic materials.

Funding/Infrastructure:

All school districts in Texas are eligible to receive a technology allotment, currently $30 per student, for purchasing electronic textbooks or technological equipment that contributes to student learning, to pay for training educational personnel directly involved in student learning, and to provide access to technological equipment for instructional use. Technology allotment funds were first made available to schools in 1992. As a result of the 74th legislative sessions, the district technology allotment was rolled into the State Textbook Fund. Other state technology initiatives are funded from the newly established Telecommunications Infrastructure Fund. The Fund, totaling $150 million per year for 10 years, is composed of the telecommunications utilities account and the commercial mobile service providers account.

Regulation:

House Bill 2128 provides for a measure of deregulation for telephone companies including distance insensitive rates for high-speed (T1) circuits. HB 2128 also created a nine-member board to oversee the expansion of the telecommunications infrastructure of public schools, non-profit hospitals, colleges, universities, and libraries. In addition, previous legislation allows districts to receive a 25 percent discount on tariffed rates.


Utah

Planning:

School districts are required to write five-year plans with annual updates before legislative allocations are distributed. The governing committee represents state government, public and higher education, local school districts, and business and industry. There is excellent collaboration between public and higher education.

Infrastructure:

Utah has been aggressive in building a statewide infrastructure to improve student achievement through integration of technology into the teaching and learning process. This infrastructure includes hardware, software, and broadband capabilities. Every public K-12 school in the state will be connected to the Internet by the 1997-98 school year.

Funding:

To date, the state has allocated over $70 million for K-12 educational technology, two-way interactive distance learning capability and Internet connectivity. It is anticipated that at least $33 million more will be allocated this legislative session.

Services:

UtahLink (http://www.uen.org/UtahLink.html) is the state's computer based service, which provides a menu of on-demand electronic educational materials and informational resources.


Vermont

Planning:

The state has developed an information technology plan. Using capital funding to build telecommunications infrastructure, the Vermont legislature is working to connect schools to the Internet. More than 100 public schools are being connected to the new "K-12 Net" with local phone access.

Services:

A distance learning program that offers advanced placement courses to Vermont high schools has been developed by the University of Vermont.


Virginia

Planning:

Virginia's first six-year state technology plan was released in 1988. A second six-year plan was distributed for broad review in August 1995. Developed under the leadership of the Virginia Educational Technology Advisory Committee (VETAC), the focus areas are infrastructure, classroom and administrative technologies, teacher training and technical assistance, and evaluation. The plan is the blueprint for newly developed school division plans in each of the 132 operating school divisions.

Infrastructure:

The Department of Education operates a free K-12 data and information network known as Virginia's Public Education Network (PEN) and the Virginia Satellite Educational Network (VSEN), a distance learning network. Other infrastructure developments are complete or under development.

Funding:

1988-90 state funding to schools totaled $22.5 million for computers, distance learning, training, and software. 1994-95 state funding to schools totaled $69.5 million for library media centers including linkage to PEN and the Internet and LAN networking in each of 1,785 schools. Local share requirements to receive state funds added $1.6 million for teacher training. An unprecedented $75 million for 1996-97 has been proposed by the Governor for infrastructure, computers, networking, scientific probes, and graphing calculators to implement the recently adopted Standards of Learning. All state technology appropriations have utilized a composite index of ability to pay in order to address disparity.


Washington

Planning:

Washington State's Technology Plan for K-12 Education released in September 1994 provides a vision, framework, and recommendations for 1995-97. Washington State's 1993 Education Reform Act mandated that a state technology plan for K-12 schools be developed as well as other initiatives, such as provisions for technology support to school districts through the Educational Technology Support Centers; enhancement of the statewide data network through the establishment of nine Internet hubs across the state; regional networking consultants; the establishment of the Washington Interactive Television system for video conferencing; and a one-time allocation of approximately $20.61 per student to districts for "instructional materials and technology related investments."


West Virginia

Infrastructure:

Bell Atlantic has invested $10 million in a project to connect every school to Internet services by 1996. The West Virginia Department of Education works cooperatively with the West Virginia Network for Educational Telecommunications to utilize existing telecommunications infrastructure.

Funding:

Since October 1990, the Basic Skills/Computer Education Program has provided hardware and software for K-6 classrooms in the state to improve basic skills using technology. To date, nearly 17,500 student workstations have been placed in K-4 classrooms, over 4,375 classrooms have student utilization, and over 11,000 educators have been trained. Microsoft, in partnership with the West Virginia Department of Education, has donated $1.8 million worth of multimedia software. As of February 1996, the state has 50 technology demonstration sites, using advanced multimedia. It plans to increase the 320 satellite downlink sites. Through the Curriculum Technology Resource Center, West Virginia has 222 sites with complete turnkey laserdisc technology integration. In addition, 32 of those sites are multimedia sites. This year, the legislature allocated $1.8 million for specific telecommunications technology, and an additional State School Building Authority statewide grant of $2.1 million to assist with wiring.


Wisconsin

Funding:

A statewide "Advanced Telecommunications Foundation" has been established. Funding comes from telecommunications providers. The state has also funded a $10 million grant program that will enable schools and libraries to improve access to advanced telecommunications and distance education technologies. A 25 percent local match is required.


Wyoming

Planning:

The Goals 2000 -- Technology in Education Panel is in the initial stages of planning at the state level. Its intent is to have developed a technology plan for all educational entities in the state by May of 1997.

Infrastructure:

Wyoming maintains a state network that currently reaches into nearly 20 communities.

Funding:

As of spring of 1996, Wyoming had not designated any state dollars for technology in education.
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Last Modified: 01/20/2004